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Joseph Jacob J Department of Medicine, VA Boston Healthcare System and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. - - 2013
Selenium is incorporated as the unique amino acid selenocysteine into selenoproteins, which regulate important biologic processes such as redox balance. The results of epidemiologic and clinical investigations are inconclusive regarding the relation of the plasma selenium level to cardiometabolic parameters and does not support the routine use of selenium supplements ...
Yamanis Thespina J TJ School of International Service, American University, 4400 Massachusetts Ave NW, Washington, DC, 20016-8071, USA. - - 2013
Understanding the uptake and patterns of sexual partnerships of adolescent males reveals their risky behaviors that could persist into adulthood. Using venue-based sampling, we surveyed 671 male youth ages 15-19 from an urban Tanzanian neighborhood about their sexual partnerships during the past 6 months. The proportion of males who had ever ...
Shaw Richard J RJ Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, 401 Quarry Road, Palo Alto, CA 94305-5719, USA. - - 2013
Fifty-six mothers of premature infants who participated in a study to reduce symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) completed the Brief COPE, a self-report inventory of coping mechanisms, the Stanford Acute Stress Reaction Questionnaire to assess acute stress disorder (ASD) and the Davidson Trauma Scale to assess PTSD. 18 % of ...
Bozic Predrag R PR Department of Kinesiology and Applied Physiology, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, - - 2013
Although widely used, the standard strength test (SST) is known to provide moderate correlations with functional measures, while being based on sustained maximum forces and a relatively large number of trials. The aim of this study was to compare the concurrent (with respect to SST) and external validity (with respect ...
Garcia-Posada R R Maternal-Fetal Department, Institute of Gynecology, Obstetrics and Neonatology, IDIBAPS Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona Medical School, Barcelona, Catalonia, - - 2013
To construct reference ranges for cisterna magna (CM) width at 11-13 weeks' gestation in healthy fetuses and determine whether open spina bifida and posterior fossa anomalies could be diagnosed in the first trimester. This was a retrospective study. CM width reference ranges were constructed based on the measurements obtained from ...
Chen Shan - - 2013
Notch signaling plays a critical role during development by directing the binary cell fate decision between progenitors and differentiated cells. Previous studies have shown sustained Notch activation in cartilage leads to chondrodysplasia. Genetic evidence indicates that Notch regulates limb bud mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into chondrocytes via an Rbpj-dependent Notch ...
Rudiger Alain A Bloomsbury Institute of Intensive Care Medicine, Division of Medicine, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, - - 2013
Myocardial function is depressed in sepsis and is an important prognosticator in the human condition. Using echocardiography in a long-term fluid-resuscitated Wistar rat model of faecal peritonitis we investigated whether depressed myocardial function could be detected at an early stage of sepsis and, if so, whether the degree of depression ...
Hamidi Sepehr S Thyroid Autoimmune Disease Unit, Cedars-Sinai Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA 90048, - - 2013
Graves' hyperthyroidism is induced by immunizing mice with adenovirus expressing the human thyrotropin (TSH)-receptor. Using families of recombinant-inbred mice, we previously discovered that genetic susceptibility to induced thyroid-stimulating antibodies and hyperthyroidism are linked to loci on different chromosomes, indicating a fundamental genetic difference in thyroid sensitivity to ligand stimulation. An ...
Moseley Kendall F KF School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, - - 2013
The dietary acid load created by the typical Western diet may adversely impact the skeleton by disrupting calcium metabolism. Whether neutralizing dietary acid with alkaline potassium salts results in sustained improvements in calcium balance remains controversial. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 52 men and women (mean age 65.2 ± 6.2 years) ...
Dhillon Robinder S RS The Center for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, - - 2013
Recombinant parathyroid hormone (rPTH) therapy has been evaluated for skeletal repair in animal studies and clinical trials based on its known anabolic effects, but its effects on angiogenesis and fibrosis remain poorly understood. We examined the effects of rPTH therapy on blood vessel formation and osseous integration in a murine ...
Brandao Katherine K Integrated Department of Immunology, University of Colorado School of Medicine and National Jewish Health, Denver, CO 80206, - - 2013
The physiological and clinical relevance of Mg(2+) has evolved over the last decades. The molecular identification of multiple Mg(2+) transporters (Acdp2, MagT1, Mrs2, Paracellin-1, SLC41A1, SLC41A2, TRPM6 and TRPM7) and their biophysical characterization in recent years has improved our understanding of Mg(2+) homeostasis regulation and has provided a basis for ...
Deng Zhong-Bin ZB Louisville Veterans Administration Medical Center, Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville, KY 40202, USA. - - 2013
The Wnt/β-catenin pathway has been known to play a role in induction of immune tolerance, but its role in the induction and maintenance of natural killer T (NKT) cell anergy is unknown. We found that activation of the Wnt pathways in the liver microenvironment is important for induction of NKT ...
Arase Yasuji Y Department of Hepatology and Okinaka Memorial Institute for Medical Research, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan. - - 2013
The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to assess the cumulative development incidence and predictive factors for malignancies after the termination of interferon (IFN) therapy in Japanese patients for hepatitis C virus (HCV). A total of 4,302 HCV-positive patients treated with IFN were enrolled. The mean observation period was ...
Lattanzio Laura - - 2013
To examine the effect and the molecular mechanisms of the combined treatment of the somatostatin (SST) analogue octreotide with docetaxel: analysis of proliferation, apoptosis and migration in the human prostate cancer cell line PC3, either sensitive (PC3wt) or made resistant to docetaxel (PC3R). We examined the effect of the two ...
Nshimyumukiza Léon - - 2013
A patient-level Markov decision model was used to simulate a virtual cohort of 500,000 women 40 years old and over, in relation to osteoporosis-related hip, clinical vertebral, and wrist bone fractures events. Sixteen different screening options of three main scenario groups were compared: (1) the status quo (no specific national ...
Ohashi Taku - - 2013
The aim of this study was to elucidate the risk of subsequent biliary malignancy in patients undergoing cyst excision for congenital choledochal cysts. A retrospective analysis of 94 patients who had undergone cyst excision for congenital choledochal cysts was conducted. The median age at the time of cyst excision and ...
Greenspan Susan L SL Division of Endocrinology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA. - - 2013
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), a treatment for prostate cancer, is associated with bone loss and fractures. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-measured bone mineral density does not assess vertebral fractures (VF). High-resolution micro-magnetic resonance imaging (HR-MRI) assesses bone microarchitecture and provides structural information. To determine if VF identification increased the diagnosis of ...
Patsch Janina M JM Musculoskeletal Quantitative Imaging Research Group, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. - - 2013
The primary goal of this study was to assess peripheral bone microarchitecture and strength in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes with fragility fractures (DMFx) and to compare them with postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetics without fractures (DM). Secondary goals were to assess differences in nondiabetic postmenopausal women with ...
Foster B L BL National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. - - 2013
Tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) is expressed in mineralizing tissues and functions to reduce pyrophosphate (PP(i) ), a potent inhibitor of mineralization. Loss of TNAP function causes hypophosphatasia (HPP), a heritable disorder marked by increased PP(i) , resulting in rickets and osteomalacia. Tooth root cementum defects are well described in both ...
Dieckmann Marco M Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, TX, - - 2013
The primary role of apolipoprotein E (apoE) is to mediate the cellular uptake of lipoproteins. However, a new role for apoE as a regulator of bone metabolism in mice has recently been established. In contrast to mice, the human APOE gene is characterized by three common isoforms APOE ε2, ε3, ...
Ichinohe Norihisa N Department of Tissue Development and Regeneration, the Research Institute for Frontier Medicine, Sapporo, Japan. - - 2013
Oval cells and small hepatocytes (SHs) are known to be hepatic stem and progenitor cells. Although oval cells are believed to differentiate into mature hepatocytes (MHs) through SHs, the details of their differentiation process are not well understood. Furthermore, it is not certain whether the induced cells possess fully mature ...
Wahl Kristin - - 2013
As the result of an increasing incidence and a prevalent therapy resistance of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), there is a strong need for novel strategies to enhance treatment responses in HCC. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has been proposed as a promising anticancer drug because it can selectively induce apoptosis ...
Lopez-Rubio Jose-Juan - - 2013
Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) studies have been used extensively in recent years to study the functional role of histone marks, variant histones, and other chromatin factors in gene expression in the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. In this chapter, we present a ChIP-sequencing protocol optimized for blood-stage forms of this parasite. ...
Rénia Laurent - - 2013
Sterile immunity against malaria has been obtained in mammalian hosts exclusively through vaccination with whole parasite preparations. Induction of complete protection against challenge was obtained using sporozoites attenuated by irradiation or genetic manipulations. It has been demonstrated recently that immunization with normal sporozoites under chloroquine cover confers sterile protection in ...
Stanway Rebecca R - - 2013
Exoerythrocytic Plasmodium parasites infect hepatocytes and develop to huge multinucleated schizonts inside a parasitophorous vacuole. Finally, thousands of merozoites are formed and released into the host cell cytoplasm by complete disintegration of the parasitophorous vacuole membrane. This, in turn, results in death and detachment of the infected hepatocyte, followed by ...
Braks Joanna - - 2013
We describe a technology for imaging the sequestration of infected red blood cells (iRBC) of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei both in the bodies of live mice and in dissected organs, using a transgenic parasite that expresses luciferase. Real-time imaging of sequestered iRBC is performed by measuring bioluminescence produced ...
Dorin-Semblat Dominique - - 2013
The central role played by protein phosphorylation in the regulation of eukaryotic cellular processes calls for detailed investigations of this phenomenon in malaria parasites. Here, we describe protocols to measure the activity of protein kinases (using either recombinant proteins or native enzymes purified from parasite extracts), and outline procedures to ...
Srivastava Anand - - 2013
Due to the A/T-richness of the genome of Plasmodium falciparum, expressing P. falciparum proteins in heterologous expression systems is challenging. In addition, many P. falciparum proteins have high cysteine content and high molecular weight, which further complicates expression of these proteins in heterologous systems. The high molecular weight Plasmodium falciparum ...
Stanisic Danielle I - - 2013
An effective malaria vaccine remains an important priority for the millions of people living in malaria endemic regions. Subambitious goals for the development of a vaccine have been set, which aim to achieve a licensed first-generation P. falciparum malaria vaccine with more than 50% protective efficacy against severe disease and ...
Ramakrishnan Chandra - - 2013
We provide a series of protocols that have been used for the cyclic transmission of rodent malaria parasites in the laboratory. This is now possible both in vivo and in vitro. We focus on the least "resource intensive" and generic methods that we find applicable to any parasite-host combination. Nonetheless, ...
Lamacchia Marina - - 2013
Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes are the major vectors of human malaria parasites. However, mosquitoes are not passive hosts for parasites, actively limiting their development in vivo. Our current understanding of the mosquito antiparasitic response is mostly based on the phenotypic analysis of gene knockdowns obtained by RNA interference (RNAi), through the ...
Bozdech Zbynek - - 2013
DNA microarray is presently one of the most powerful and fastest growing technologies for genomic research of infectious diseases. Accordingly, DNA microarray-based global analyses of Plasmodium parasites provided many insights into the general biology of malaria infection. From the parasite perspective, it was shown that the complex Plasmodium life cycle ...
Hoeijmakers Wieteke A M - - 2013
Transcriptome analysis by next-generation sequencing (RNA-seq) allows investigation of a transcriptome at unsurpassed resolution. One major benefit is that RNA-seq is independent of a priori knowledge on the sequence under investigation, thereby also allowing analysis of poorly characterized Plasmodium species. Here we provide a detailed protocol for RNA isolation and ...
Cockburn Ian - - 2013
The study of pathogen immunity relies upon being able to track antigen specific immune responses and assess their protective capacity. To study immunity to Plasmodium antigens, chimeric rodent or human malaria parasites that express proteins from other Plasmodium species or unrelated species have been developed. Different types of chimeric parasites ...
Mancio-Silva Liliana - - 2013
Fluorescence-based techniques have been used extensively in the malaria field to study the functional role of nuclear organization and gene positioning in blood stages of the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. In this chapter, we present optimized protocols for bromouridine (BrUTP) incorporation into nascent RNA in live parasites and fluorescent ...
Chen Yun-Chi - - 2013
T-cell receptor transgenic mice are powerful tools to study T cell responses to malaria parasites. They allow for a population of antigen specific T cells to be monitored during developing responses to immunization or parasite infection; this makes them particularly useful to study fundamental aspects of T cell activation, differentiation, ...
Annoura Takeshi - - 2013
We describe simple and sensitive in vitro and in vivo assays to analyze Plasmodium liver stage development using transgenic P. berghei parasites (PbGFP-Luccon), which express the bioluminescent reporter protein, luciferase. In these assays, parasite development in hepatocytes is visualized and quantified by real-time bioluminescence imaging both in culture and in ...
Singh Shailja - - 2013
An increased level of cytosolic free calcium (Ca(2+)) is an essential second messenger for apical organelle discharge in Plasmodium falciparum merozoites. Here, we describe a method for isolation of viable and invasive P. falciparum merozoites. We also describe methods to measure cytosolic Ca(2+) levels in merozoites using fluorescent intracellular calcium ...
Sanchez Cecilia P - - 2013
Here, we describe the methodology for transient transfection of Plasmodium vivax. The ability to genetically manipulate P. vivax has rendered this important human malaria parasite more amenable to molecular investigation. However, a systematic analysis of this parasite and its disease-mediating interactions with the human host still awaits further technological breakthroughs, ...
Bouillon Anthony - - 2013
Drug discovery programs heavily rely on assays adequately monitoring the activity of the drug on the -parasite stage targeted. So far, assays used to screen molecules active against Plasmodium falciparum parasites have mostly been based on measuring growth inhibition of asexual blood stages. We have developed a robust protocol allowing ...
Khan Shahid M - - 2013
Genetically modified Plasmodium parasites are central gene function reagents in malaria research. The Rodent Malaria genetically modified DataBase (RMgmDB) ( www.pberghei.eu ) is a manually curated Web - based repository that contains information on genetically modified rodent malaria parasites. It provides easy and rapid access to information on the genotype ...
Carey Allison F - - 2013
Sporozoites, the stage of Plasmodium infectious to vertebrates when injected in the skin by a mosquito vector, are highly motile cells. Their unusual form of gliding motility is essential for infectivity, allowing the parasite to travel through both the mosquito and mammalian hosts, invading different cell types and escaping immune ...
Blagborough Andrew M - - 2013
Here we describe a series of methods that can be used to assess the activities of "vaccines," drugs, and genetically modified vectors, for their abilities to inhibit transmission of Plasmodium from its vertebrate to its mosquito hosts. The selection of method to be used is determined by the purpose of ...
Lin Jing-Wen - - 2013
We describe two improved assays for in vitro and in vivo screening of inhibitors and chemicals for antimalarial activity against blood stages of the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei. These assays are based on the determination of bioluminescence in small blood samples that is produced by reporter parasites expressing luciferase. ...
Rug Melanie - - 2013
Genetic manipulation of Plasmodium falciparum remains very challenging, mainly due to the parasite genome's high A/T-richness and low transfection efficiency. This chapter includes methods for generating transient and stable transfections by electroporation, allelic replacement with tagged genes, gene deletion, and the analysis of all the above.
Zeeman Anne-Marie - - 2013
Long-term in vitro cultures of blood-stage parasites are so far feasible only for Plasmodium falciparum and P. knowlesi. In this chapter, we describe short-term ex vivo culturing of P. cynomolgi and P. vivax. We also describe long-term in vitro culturing of P. knowlesi as well as some techniques for synchronizing ...
Vaughan Ashley M - - 2013
The attenuation of Plasmodium parasites by either radiation or targeted gene deletion can result in viable sporozoites that invade the liver and subsequently arrest. The death of the growth-arrested liver stage parasite and the ensuing recognition by the immune system of parasite antigens promotes protective immunity in immunized mice and ...
Lavazec Catherine - - 2013
The altered deformability of erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum is central in malaria -pathogenesis, as it influences the hemodynamic properties of the infected cell and its retention in the spleen. Exported parasite proteins, as well as the shape and volume of the parasite itself, influence the deformability of the infected ...
Saliba Kathryn Shaw - - 2013
Production of gametocytes in vitro is essential for studies of Plasmodium falciparum sexual stages. Here, we describe procedures for the high-yield production and fractionation of P. falciparum gametocytes stages I to V.
Ghosh Anil K - - 2013
The ookinete is the motile form of the malaria parasite that invades the mosquito midgut epithelium to initiate sporogony. Differentiation of ingested gametocytes into ookinetes in the mosquito midgut lumen and the subsequent interaction with the luminal surface of the midgut epithelium in preparation for invasion are complex processes. To ...
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