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Fornari Eric D ED Department of Pediatric Orthopedics, Rady Children's Hospital and Health Center, San Diego, CA 92123, USA. - - 2013
Obese children reportedly have an increased risk of sustaining musculoskeletal injuries compared with their normal-weight peers. Obese children are at greater risk for sustaining fractures of the forearm, particularly from low-energy mechanisms. Furthermore, obesity is a risk factor for sustaining an extremity fracture requiring surgery. However, it is unclear what ...
Duncan Niall W NW Mind, Brain Imaging and Neuroethics Research Unit, University of Ottawa Institute of Mental Health Research, Ottawa, Ont. - - 2013
Studies of intrinsic brain activity in the resting state have become increasingly common. A productive discussion of what analysis methods are appropriate, of the importance of physiologic correction and of the potential interpretations of results has been ongoing. However, less attention has been paid to factors other than physiologic noise ...
Tang Junxia X JX Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, - - 2013
Previous research suggests that a link between anesthetic exposure and Alzheimer disease exists. Because anesthetics are rarely given alone, we ask whether addition of surgery further modulates Alzheimer disease. Cognitive dysfunction occurs after surgery in humans. Anesthesia alone produces cognitive decline in both older wild-type (WT) mice and rats, and ...
Wang Bo-Shi - - 2013
There have been multiple lines of evidence suggesting that autophagy selectively targets signalling proteins and regulates cancer cell signalling in addition to bulk clearance of long-lived proteins and organelles. Protein degradation through autophagy requires receptor protein LC3B to sequester the substrates into the autophagosome. In the present study, we screened ...
Boris Ronald S RS National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, Urologic Oncology Branch, Bethesda, Maryand, - - 2013
Treating patients with renal-cell carcinoma (RCC) after previous retroperitoneal surgery (renal or adrenal) is technically challenging. We present our initial experience with laparoscopic renal interventions (LRI) after previous open retroperitoneal surgery in patients needing ipsilateral renal intervention. We report on feasibility, functional and oncologic outcomes of LRI after previous open ...
Lipowsky Herbert H HH Department of Bioengineering, Penn State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA. - - 2013
To elucidate shear-dependent effects of deformation of the endothelial glycocalyx on adhesion of circulating ligands in post-capillary venules, and delineate effect of MMPs. Adhesion of WBCs and lectin-coated FLMs (0.1 μm diameter) to EC of post-capillary venules in mesentery was examined during acute reductions in shear rates (γ·, hemorrhagic hypotension). Adhesion ...
Iceland John J Department of Sociology, Penn State University, 211 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802, USA. - - 2013
The goal of this study is to examine the extent to which population shifts over the post-Great Migration period and divergent trends in segregation across regions contributed to the overall decline in black segregation in the United States in recent decades. Using data from the 1970 to 2000 decennial censuses ...
Yosten G L C GL Department of Pharmacological and Physiological Science, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63104, USA. - - 2013
Normal anterior pituitary function is essential for fertility. Release from the gland of the reproductive hormones luteinising hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone is regulated primarily by hypothalamically-derived gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH), although other releasing factors (RF) have been postulated to exist. Using a bioinformatic approach, we have identified a novel peptide, phoenixin, ...
Barbati Alexander C AC Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, - - 2013
We present the design, analysis, construction, and culture results of a microfluidic device for the segregation and chemical stimulation of primary rat hippocampal neurons. Our device is designed to achieve spatio-temporal solute delivery to discrete sections of neurons with mitigated mechanical stress. We implement a geometric guidance technique to direct ...
Panchapakesan Usha - - 2013
Although there have been major advances in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms that contribute to the development of diabetic nephropathy, current best practice still leaves a significant treatment gap. The incidence of diabetes and associated nephropathy is increasing, with the main cause of mortality being related to cardiovascular causes. ...
Rodrigo Ramón - - 2013
The role of oxidative stress in ischaemic heart disease has been thoroughly investigated in humans. Increased levels of ROS (reactive oxygen species) and RNS (reactive nitrogen species) have been demonstrated during ischaemia and post-ischaemic reperfusion in humans. Depending on their concentrations, these reactive species can act either as benevolent molecules ...
Sheffield Kristin M - - 2013
To determine the frequency and predictors of cardiac stress testing before elective noncardiac surgery in Medicare patients with no indications for cardiovascular evaluation. The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines indicate that patients without class I (American Heart Association high risk) or class II cardiac conditions (clinical risk factors) ...
Calobrace M Bradley - - 2013
Of all mastopexies performed in the authors' facility, approximately 77 percent of patients have an implant placed simultaneously. The unique challenges and safety concerns associated with the simultaneous augmentation/mastopexy procedure merit a deeper evaluation of its use and associated risks. A retrospective analysis of 430 mastopexy operations, including 332 simultaneous ...
Orman Eric S ES Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC. - - 2013
Worsening donor liver quality resulting in decreased organ utilization may be contributing to the recent decline in liver transplants nationally. We sought to examine trends in donor liver utilization and the relationship between donor characteristics and nonuse. We used the United Network for Organ Sharing database to review all deceased ...
Carballosa Gonzalez Melissa M MM Department of Neurological Surgery, The Miami Project to Cure Paralysis, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33101, - - 2013
The midbrain median raphe (MR) and dorsal raphe (DR) nuclei were tested for their capacity to regulate recovery from traumatic brain injury (TBI). An implanted, wireless self-powered stimulator delivered intermittent 8-Hz pulse trains for 7 days to the rat's MR or DR, beginning 4-6 h after a moderate parasagittal (right) fluid-percussion ...
Hajjar Ihab - - 2012
BACKGROUND Angiotensin II may be involved in amyloid metabolism in the brain. Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) may also prevent cognitive decline. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the impact of treatment with ARBs on the neuropathology of Alzheimer disease (AD) in the National Alzheimer Coordinating Center database, which includes aggregated data and brain ...
De Sancho Maria T - - 2012
To assess the rate and type of maternal and infant complications among pregnant women receiving low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH). Retrospective study of pregnant women on LMWH referred to two university hematology clinics from January 2001 to December 2010. We recorded the number of pregnancies, indication, dose and dose adjustments for LMWH, ...
Kotagal Vikas - - 2012
BACKGROUND Prior studies suggest that serotoninergic neurotransmission reduces β-amyloid (Aβ) production. OBJECTIVE To determine whether serotoninergic system degeneration in Parkinson disease promotes Aβ deposition, using in vivo positron emission tomographic probes of serotonin system integrity and Aβ deposition. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS Cross-sectional study of 13 subjects with Parkinson disease ...
Hong Sung Kuk - - 2012
The mixing test is used to determine the presence of inhibitors in laboratory diagnoses of lupus anticoagulant. Updated international guidelines state that an integrated lupus anticoagulant test system does not require the mixing test; an appraisal of the mixing tests in integrated lupus anticoagulant test systems is, therefore, required. We ...
Falcone E Liana EL Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-1684, - - 2012
Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) remain a major cause of death in patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). We discuss the new insights into the pathogenesis, diagnosis, prevention, and management of invasive fungal infections in patients with CGD. CGD has the highest prevalence of IFIs among the immunodeficiencies. Infections typically involve ...
Hosseini Vahid V WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai, - - 2012
To engineer tissue-like structures, cells must organize themselves into three-dimensional (3D) networks that mimic the native tissue microarchitecture. Microfabricated hydrogel substrates provide a potentially useful platform for directing cells into biomimetic tissue architecture in vitro. Here, we present microgrooved methacrylated gelatin hydrogels as a suitable platform to build muscle-like fibrous ...
Battey Thomas W K TW Hemorrhagic Stroke Research Group, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, - - 2012
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a highly fatal disease with few proven treatments. Data to guide clinician decisions for therapies, including antiepileptic drugs (AED), are limited. Published studies on AED treatment in ICH have provided conflicting results. We investigated the effect of AED treatment on 90-day mortality after ICH in a ...
Sharma Pratima P Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. - - 2012
Under an ideal implementation of Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD)-based liver allocation, the only factors that would predict deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) rates would be the MELD score, blood type, and donation service area (DSA). We aimed to determine whether additional factors are associated with DDLT rates in ...
Garone Caterina - - 2012
OBJECTIVE To identify the cause of an adult-onset multisystemic disease with multiple deletions of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). DESIGN Case report. SETTING University hospitals. PATIENT A 65-year-old man with axonal sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy, ptosis, ophthalmoparesis, diabetes mellitus, exercise intolerance, steatohepatopathy, depression, parkinsonism, and gastrointestinal dysmotility. RESULTS Skeletal muscle biopsy revealed ragged-red ...
Xi Zhengrui - - 2012
OBJECTIVE To estimate the allele frequency of C9orf72 (G4C2) repeats in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), Alzheimer disease (AD), and Parkinson disease (PD). DESIGN The number of repeats was estimated by a 2-step genotyping strategy. For expansion carriers, we sequenced the repeat flanking regions and obtained APOE ...
Kennedy Richard E RE Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, 1665 University Blvd, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA. - - 2012
The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) was created to develop standards for brain imaging and biomarkers for diagnosis and treatment trials. Using the ADNI dataset, experts have found that low cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β1-42 (CSF Aβ1-42) concentration and high total-tau/Aβ1-42 ratio are highly predictive of progression in amnestic mild cognitive impairment ...
Wang Chen C Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai 9th People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, P.R. - - 2013
Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) can differentiate into smooth muscle cells and have been engineered into elastic small diameter blood vessel walls in vitro. However, the mechanisms involved in the development of three-dimensional (3D) vascular tissue remain poorly understood. The present study analyzed protein expression profiles of engineered blood vessel walls ...
Markov Dmitry A DA Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, - - 2012
We have developed a novel, portable, gravity-fed, microfluidics-based platform suitable for optical interrogation of long-term organotypic cell culture. This system is designed to provide convenient control of cell maintenance, nutrients, and experimental reagent delivery to tissue-like cell densities housed in a transparent, low-volume microenvironment. To demonstrate the ability of our ...
Wei Qiong Q Institute for Cancer Research, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111, - - 2013
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most frequent variation in the human genome. Nonsynonymous SNPs that lead to missense mutations can be neutral or deleterious, and several computational methods have been presented that predict the phenotype of human missense mutations. These methods use sequence-based and structure-based features in various combinations, ...
Suzuki Hitomi H Magee-Womens Research Institute, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, - - 2013
Visualization of differentiating germ cells is critical to understanding the formation of primordial follicles in the ovary, and the commitment of spermatogonial stem cells to differentiation. We engineered and generated a BAC transgenic mouse line, Sohlh1-mCherryFlag (S1CF), under the direction of the native Sohlh1 promoter. Sohlh1 is a germ cell-specific ...
Ragupathy Rajan - - 2012
Patients' access to medicines can be profoundly affected by the decisions made by medicine licensing bodies and public reimbursement agencies. The present study compares access to licensed and subsidized medicines under a single-payer system in each of the US, the UK, Australia and New Zealand (NZ). These systems are the ...
Nilsson Bo - - 2012
The tick-over theory was first introduced in the 1970s to explain the presence of the initial C3b molecules, which are able to trigger complement activation by the alternative pathway in human plasma under physiological conditions. After the identification of the thioester, the predominant hypothesis has been that this bond is ...
Karsten Christian M - - 2012
Immunoglobulin G (IgG)-mediated activation of complement and IgG Fc receptors (FcγRs) are important defense mechanisms of the innate immune system to ward off infections. However, the same mechanisms can drive severe and harmful inflammation, when IgG antibodies react with self-antigens in solution or tissues, as described for several autoimmune diseases ...
Barratt-Due Andreas - - 2012
Attenuating the sepsis-induced systemic inflammatory response, with subsequent homeostatic imbalance, has for years been one of the main tasks in sepsis related research. Complement and the TLR family constitute two important upstream sensor and effector-systems of innate immunity. Although they act as partly independent branches of pattern recognition, recent evidence ...
de Cordoba Santiago Rodriguez - - 2012
During the last decade, numerous studies have associated genetic variations in complement components and regulators with a number of chronic and infectious diseases. The functional characterization of these complement protein variants, in addition to recent structural advances in understanding of the assembly, activation and regulation of the AP C3 convertase, ...
Happonen Kaisa E - - 2012
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a highly disabling disease affecting all structures of the joint. Understanding the pathology behind the development of RA is essential for developing targeted therapeutic strategies as well as for developing novel markers to predict disease onset. Several molecules normally hidden within the cartilage tissue are exposed ...
Doni Andrea - - 2012
The innate immune system comprises a cellular and a humoral arm. The long pentraxin PTX3 is a fluid phase pattern recognition molecule, which acts as an essential component of the humoral arm of innate immunity. PTX3 has antibody-like properties including interactions with complement components. PTX3 interacts with C1q, ficolin-1 and ...
Lea Susan M - - 2012
In a field where structure has finally begun to have a real impact, a series of new structures over the last two years have further extended our understanding of some of the critical regulatory events of the complement system. Notably, information has begun to flow from larger assemblies of components ...
Hajishengallis George - - 2012
Signaling crosstalk between complement and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) normally serves to coordinate host immunity. However, the periodontal bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis expresses C5 convertase-like enzymatic activity and adeptly exploits complement-TLR crosstalk to subvert host defenses and escape elimination. Intriguingly, this defective immune surveillance leads to the remodeling of the periodontal microbiota ...
Baeten Jared - - 2012
Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP), in which HIV uninfected persons with ongoing HIV risk use oral antiretroviral medications as chemoprophylaxis against sexual HIV acquisition, is a promising new HIV prevention strategy. During the past 2 years, proof-of-concept that PrEP protects against sexual HIV acquisition has been demonstrated in three clinical trials, conducted ...
Ricklin Daniel - - 2012
The complement network is increasingly recognized as an important triage system that is able to differentiate between healthy host cells, microbial intruders, cellular debris and immune complexes, and tailor its actions accordingly. At the center of this triage mechanism is the alternative pathway C3 convertase (C3bBb), a potent enzymatic protein ...
DeAngelis Robert A - - 2012
Hemodialysis is the most common method used to remove waste and hazardous products of metabolism in patients suffering from renal failure. Hundreds of thousands of people with end-stage renal disease undergo hemodialysis treatment in the United States each year. Strikingly, the 5-year survival rate for all dialysis patients is only ...
Risitano Antonio M AM Department of Biochemistry and Medical Biotechnologies, Federico II University, Naples, Italy. - - 2012
The recent availability of eculizumab as the first complement inhibitor renewed the interest for complement-mediated damage in several human diseases. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) may be considered the paradigm a disease caused by complement dysregulation specifically on erythrocytes; in fact, PNH is a clonal, non-malignant, hematological disorder characterized by the ...
Nakamura Hisashi H Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, University of Texas Medical School, Houston, TX 77030, - - 2012
To diagnose Thiel-Behnke dystrophy, an autosomal dominant disease of the anterior basement membrane/Bowman membrane complex and corneal stroma, currently relies primarily on the overall clinical presentation of patient complaints, inheritance pattern, and physical appearance of the corneal findings on slit-lamp examination. Key challenges to accurately identifying the disease are variable ...
de la Grandville Beatrice B Division of Anaesthesiology, Department of Anaesthesiology, Intensive Care and Clinical Pharmacology, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland. - - 2012
Etomidate is an imidazole-derived hypnotic agent preferentially used for rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia because of its favourable haemodynamic profile. However, 11β-hydroxylase inhibition causes adrenal insufficiency with potentially fatal consequences in specific populations. We review the arguments against the liberal administration of etomidate in critically ill, and especially septic, patients. ...
Doherty Glen A GA Division of Gastroenterology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center & Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, - - 2012
Purinergic signaling and associated ectonucleotidases, such as CD39 and CD73, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). CD39 is known to be a Treg memory cell marker, and here we determine the phenotype and function of CD73(+) CD4(+) T lymphocytes in patients with IBD. We describe ...
Rinchai Darawan D The Centre for Research and Development of Medical Diagnostic Laboratories, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, - - 2012
Septicemia is the most severe form of melioidosis caused by the Gram-negative bacterium, Burkholderia pseudomallei. Here, we show that levels of IL-27p28 transcript and protein were both significantly elevated in patients with sepsis, particularly melioidosis and in patients with unfavorable disease outcome. Moreover, human monocytes/macrophages and neutrophils were the major ...
Schmidt-Kassow Maren - - 2012
Physical activity has been shown to enhance circulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in animals and humans. However, the exact time course and sex-specific modulation of peripheral BDNF in response to exercise are still poorly understood. We examined the kinetics of BDNF serum concentrations in response to perceived high-intensity and low-intensity ...
Yang Lan - - 2012
It is well known that emotion can modify the experience of pain. However, it is unclear how an emotional state and its concomitant neural activity affects activity in brain regions responsive to pain, thus altering the experience of pain itself. In this study, we examined the effect of sad mood ...
Brown Russell E - - 2012
In marked contrast to several other species, including rats and humans, leptin gene expression is undetectable in mouse brain. This unexpected finding may reflect unique energy regulation pathways in the mouse. We investigated possible mechanisms by which leptin (ob) gene expression is suppressed in mouse brain: (a) the possibility that ...
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