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Baeten Jared - - 2012
Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP), in which HIV uninfected persons with ongoing HIV risk use oral antiretroviral medications as chemoprophylaxis against sexual HIV acquisition, is a promising new HIV prevention strategy. During the past 2 years, proof-of-concept that PrEP protects against sexual HIV acquisition has been demonstrated in three clinical trials, conducted ...
Ricklin Daniel - - 2012
The complement network is increasingly recognized as an important triage system that is able to differentiate between healthy host cells, microbial intruders, cellular debris and immune complexes, and tailor its actions accordingly. At the center of this triage mechanism is the alternative pathway C3 convertase (C3bBb), a potent enzymatic protein ...
DeAngelis Robert A - - 2012
Hemodialysis is the most common method used to remove waste and hazardous products of metabolism in patients suffering from renal failure. Hundreds of thousands of people with end-stage renal disease undergo hemodialysis treatment in the United States each year. Strikingly, the 5-year survival rate for all dialysis patients is only ...
Risitano Antonio M AM Department of Biochemistry and Medical Biotechnologies, Federico II University, Naples, Italy. - - 2012
The recent availability of eculizumab as the first complement inhibitor renewed the interest for complement-mediated damage in several human diseases. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) may be considered the paradigm a disease caused by complement dysregulation specifically on erythrocytes; in fact, PNH is a clonal, non-malignant, hematological disorder characterized by the ...
Nakamura Hisashi H Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, University of Texas Medical School, Houston, TX 77030, - - 2012
To diagnose Thiel-Behnke dystrophy, an autosomal dominant disease of the anterior basement membrane/Bowman membrane complex and corneal stroma, currently relies primarily on the overall clinical presentation of patient complaints, inheritance pattern, and physical appearance of the corneal findings on slit-lamp examination. Key challenges to accurately identifying the disease are variable ...
de la Grandville Beatrice B Division of Anaesthesiology, Department of Anaesthesiology, Intensive Care and Clinical Pharmacology, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland. - - 2012
Etomidate is an imidazole-derived hypnotic agent preferentially used for rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia because of its favourable haemodynamic profile. However, 11β-hydroxylase inhibition causes adrenal insufficiency with potentially fatal consequences in specific populations. We review the arguments against the liberal administration of etomidate in critically ill, and especially septic, patients. ...
Doherty Glen A GA Division of Gastroenterology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center & Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, - - 2012
Purinergic signaling and associated ectonucleotidases, such as CD39 and CD73, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). CD39 is known to be a Treg memory cell marker, and here we determine the phenotype and function of CD73(+) CD4(+) T lymphocytes in patients with IBD. We describe ...
Rinchai Darawan D The Centre for Research and Development of Medical Diagnostic Laboratories, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, - - 2012
Septicemia is the most severe form of melioidosis caused by the Gram-negative bacterium, Burkholderia pseudomallei. Here, we show that levels of IL-27p28 transcript and protein were both significantly elevated in patients with sepsis, particularly melioidosis and in patients with unfavorable disease outcome. Moreover, human monocytes/macrophages and neutrophils were the major ...
Schmidt-Kassow Maren - - 2012
Physical activity has been shown to enhance circulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in animals and humans. However, the exact time course and sex-specific modulation of peripheral BDNF in response to exercise are still poorly understood. We examined the kinetics of BDNF serum concentrations in response to perceived high-intensity and low-intensity ...
Yang Lan - - 2012
It is well known that emotion can modify the experience of pain. However, it is unclear how an emotional state and its concomitant neural activity affects activity in brain regions responsive to pain, thus altering the experience of pain itself. In this study, we examined the effect of sad mood ...
Brown Russell E - - 2012
In marked contrast to several other species, including rats and humans, leptin gene expression is undetectable in mouse brain. This unexpected finding may reflect unique energy regulation pathways in the mouse. We investigated possible mechanisms by which leptin (ob) gene expression is suppressed in mouse brain: (a) the possibility that ...
Takahashi Junichi - - 2012
A previous behavioral study showed that a group of individuals with high vividness of visual imagery (High group), as determined from the score for the Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire (VVIQ), could perceive the apparent motion path more strongly than a group of individuals with low vividness of visual imagery ...
Vickers Andrew J AJ Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. - - 2012
Although acupuncture is widely used for chronic pain, there remains considerable controversy as to its value. We aimed to determine the effect size of acupuncture for 4 chronic pain conditions: back and neck pain, osteoarthritis, chronic headache, and shoulder pain. We conducted a systematic review to identify randomized controlled trials ...
Cunningham Andrew A - - 2012
An introduction to the theme issue that includes papers that identify how, where and why infectious diseases in wildlife emerge, while also addressing their possible conservation impacts.
Roche Benjamin - - 2012
The increasing number of zoonotic diseases spilling over from a range of wild animal species represents a particular concern for public health, especially in light of the current dramatic trend of biodiversity loss. To understand the ecology of these multi-host pathogens and their response to environmental degradation and species extinctions, ...
Lafferty Kevin D - - 2012
Past models have suggested host-parasite coextinction could lead to linear, or concave down relationships between free-living species richness and parasite richness. I explored several models for the relationship between parasite richness and biodiversity loss. Life cycle complexity, low generality of parasites and sensitivity of hosts reduced the robustness of parasite ...
Almberg Emily S - - 2012
Wildlife reintroductions select or treat individuals for good health with the expectation that these individuals will fare better than infected animals. However, these individuals, new to their environment, may also be particularly susceptible to circulating infections and this may result in high morbidity and mortality, potentially jeopardizing the goals of ...
Lawson Becki - - 2012
Finch trichomonosis, caused by the protozoal parasite Trichomonas gallinae, was first recognized as an emerging infectious disease of British passerines in 2005. The first year of seasonal epidemic mortality occurred in 2006 with significant declines of greenfinch Carduelis chloris and chaffinch Fringilla coelebs populations. Here, we demonstrate that large-scale mortality, ...
Dye Christopher - - 2012
To devise and implement effective health policy, we must define the problem, choose the tools, craft the policy, build consensus, set goals and deadlines, raise funds and take action. Success or failure depends on the perception of risk, the strength of the underlying science, the efficacy of the technology, ownership ...
McCallum Hamish - - 2012
Invading infectious diseases can, in theory, lead to the extinction of host populations, particularly if reservoir species are present or if disease transmission is frequency-dependent. The number of historic or prehistoric extinctions that can unequivocally be attributed to infectious disease is relatively small, but gathering firm evidence in retrospect is ...
Wood James L N JL Disease Dynamics Unit, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 OES, UK. - - 2012
Many serious emerging zoonotic infections have recently arisen from bats, including Ebola, Marburg, SARS-coronavirus, Hendra, Nipah, and a number of rabies and rabies-related viruses, consistent with the overall observation that wildlife are an important source of emerging zoonoses for the human population. Mechanisms underlying the recognized association between ecosystem health ...
Halliday Jo J Boyd Orr Centre for Population and Ecosystem Health, College of Medicine, Veterinary Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK. - - 2012
Early detection of disease outbreaks in human and animal populations is crucial to the effective surveillance of emerging infectious diseases. However, there are marked geographical disparities in capacity for early detection of outbreaks, which limit the effectiveness of global surveillance strategies. Linking surveillance approaches for emerging and neglected endemic zoonoses, ...
Woolhouse Mark M Centre for Immunity, Infection and Evolution, University of Edinburgh, Ashworth Laboratories, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK. - - 2012
There are 219 virus species that are known to be able to infect humans. The first of these to be discovered was yellow fever virus in 1901, and three to four new species are still being found every year. Extrapolation of the discovery curve suggests that there is still a ...
Travis Ruth C RC Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom. - - 2013
High dairy protein intake has been found to be associated with increased prostate cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). To further examine this possible relationship, we investigated the hypothesis that a genetic polymorphism in the lactase (LCT) gene might be associated with elevated dairy ...
Humphreys Ian R - - 2012
Decline of cell-mediated immunity is often attributed to decaying T-cell numbers and their distribution in peripheral organs. This study examined the hypothesis that qualitative as well as quantitative changes contribute to the declining efficacy of CD8(+) T-cell memory. Using a model of influenza virus infection, where loss of protective CD8(+) ...
Dittwald Piotr - - 2013
Inverse paralogous low-copy repeats (IP-LCRs) can cause genome instability by nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR)-mediated balanced inversions. When disrupting a dosage-sensitive gene(s), balanced inversions can lead to abnormal phenotypes. We delineated the genome-wide distribution of IP-LCRs >1 kB in size with >95% sequence identity and mapped the genes, potentially intersected by ...
Ahlehoff O - - 2013
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disorder associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Systemic anti-inflammatory drugs, including biological agents, are widely used in the treatment of patients with moderate to severe psoriasis and may attenuate the risk of cardiovascular disease events. We therefore examined the rate of cardiovascular disease events in ...
Loja Melissa N MN School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, - - 2013
Noninvasive localized measurement of extracellular pH in cancer tissues can have a significant impact on the management of cancer. Despite its significance, there are limited approaches for rapid and noninvasive measurement of local pH in a clinical environment. In this study, we demonstrate the potential of noninvasive topical delivery of ...
Litchfield Lacey M LM Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Center for Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, Kentucky, - - 2012
Chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II (COUP-TFII) is an orphan nuclear receptor that acts as a transcriptional activator or repressor in a cell type-dependent manner. Best characterized for its role in the regulation of angiogenesis during mouse development, COUP-TFII also plays important roles in glucose metabolism and cancer. Expression ...
Krishnan Subramanian S Division of Infectious Diseases, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90027, - - 2013
The interaction of outer membrane protein A (OmpA) with its receptor, Ecgp96 (a homologue of Hsp90β), is critical for the pathogenesis of Escherichia coli K1 meningitis. Since Hsp90 chaperones Toll-like receptors (TLRs), we examined the role of TLRs in E. coli K1 infection. Herein, we show that newborn TLR2(-/-) mice are ...
Jang Tae Young - - 2012
: Little is known about the oncologic outcomes of patients with ypT0 rectal cancer after preoperative chemoradiotherapy. : To evaluate the clinicopathologic characteristics and oncologic outcomes of patients with ypT0 rectal cancer after preoperative chemoradiotherapy and curative radical surgery. : This was a retrospective review of factors influencing outcome of ...
Ozbay Ozgul Ekmekci - - 2012
Paroxysmal tonic upward gaze constitutes a neuro-ophthalmologic syndrome characterized by episodes of sustained conjugate upward deviation of the eyes, normal horizontal gaze, and ataxia. Its pathogenesis is unknown, and the etiology is heterogeneous. The prognosis is variable. We present a case of "idiopathic paroxysmal tonic upward gaze" with a positive ...
Fajardo Alyssa D - - 2012
: Delayed repeated intraperitoneal chemotherapy after cytoreductive surgery for carcinomatosis may be an alternative to intraoperative hyperthermic infusion. : The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of delayed repeated intraperitoneal chemotherapy after cytoreduction of colorectal and appendiceal carcinomatosis and pseudomyxoma peritonei. : This study constitutes ...
Grynberg Delphine - - 2012
Grynberg, D., Davydov, D. M., Vermeulen, N. & Luminet, O. (2012). Alexithymia is associated with an augmenter profile, but not only: Evidence for anticipation to arousing music. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 53, 375-381. It has been suggested that high alexithymia scorers have an 'augmenter' profile which amplifies their physiological and ...
Wong Chack-Kie - - 2012
Public insurance possibly increases the use of health care because of the insured person's interest in maximizing benefits without incurring out-of-pocket costs. A newly reformed public insurance scheme in China that builds on personal responsibility is thus likely to provide insurance without causing moral hazard. This possibility is the focus ...
Patel Rina - - 2012
Maxillofacial fractures are very common. Recognizing patterns of facial fractures is helpful in assessing maxillofacial injury and accurately characterizing all fractures that may be present. Facial fractures are grouped into the following categories: nasal bone, naso-orbito-ethmoid, orbital, zygomatic, maxillary (including Le Fort-type fractures), mandibular, and frontal sinus fractures. Within each ...
Bhandari S - - 2012
: Desmoid tumors associated with familial adenomatous polyposis show variable behavior; about 10% grow relentlessly, resulting in severe morbidity or mortality. Investigations that could identify the minority of desmoid tumors that behave aggressively would allow these tumors to be treated early and spare the majority of patients who have more ...
Jayakrishnan Machinary P - - 2012
Autonomic dysreflexia occurs in patients with spinal cord injury, and is characterized by unbalanced sympathetic discharge, precipitated by noxious stimuli from a site below the spinal cord lesion. An 11-year-old boy with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and spinal cord involvement manifested episodes of intense flushing and sweating, confined to the head ...
Pepper Dawn - - 2012
: To describe parental perceptions of decision making concerning their extremely premature newborns who received care in a level III neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). : Seven parents of preterm infants who were born at 24 to 26 weeks' gestation at a western Canadian tertiary NICU. : Qualitative, interpretive description, ...
Elliott Christopher S - - 2012
The overlap between interstitial cystitis-painful bladder syndrome and overactive bladder can present a diagnostic challenge to the treating practitioner. Both can present with similar patient symptoms. Further compounding this dilemma is the fact that no gold standard test exists to differentiate one from the other. This review will serve to ...
Miquel Juliette - - 2012
Cutaneous manifestations are commonly observed in pediatric patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Acanthosis nigricans, however, is rarely reported, and even less often in association with neuropsychiatric manifestations of lupus erythematosus. We describe a 9-year-old boy with acute behavioral and cognitive deterioration, combined with cutaneous, diffuse hyperpigmented and hyperkeratotic plaques. Cerebral ...
Andrés Vicente - - 2012
Atherosclerosis is driven by cardiovascular risk factors that cause the recruitment of circulating immune cells beneath the vascular endothelium. Infiltrated monocytes differentiate into different macrophage subtypes with protective or pathogenic activities in vascular lesions. We discuss current knowledge about the molecular mechanisms that regulate lesional macrophage proliferation and apoptosis, two ...
Jensen Christine C - - 2012
: Whether laparoscopic surgery for colon and rectal cancer is cost-effective in comparison with open surgery remains unclear, because laparoscopic surgery results in shorter hospital stays but is associated with increased equipment costs. : This study aimed to investigate the cost-effectiveness of laparoscopic versus open surgery for colon and rectal ...
Mahajnah Muhammad - - 2012
The most heterogeneous subtype of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis comprises the late infantile variant, which, in addition to the classic CLN2, was reported in children with CLN5, CLN6, CLN7/MFSD8, and CLN8 genes. Patients with CLN8 mutations usually present as the late-infantile-onset neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis phenotype and are mostly Turkish and Italian, ...
Hanson Brian - - 2012
: Chronic radiation proctopathy is associated with significant morbidity. The effectiveness of endoscopic and medical therapies has not been evaluated. : The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the effectiveness of endoscopic and comparative medical therapies for chronic radiation proctopathy. : A comprehensive search Medline ...
Kuo Hsiao-Ting - - 2012
This investigation was aimed at using superparamagnetic particles to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (SPIO-ELISA) of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) to enhance detection sensitivity of hCG. We found that N-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) was the best cross-linking reagent to link anti hCG α antibody to superparamagnetic particle (SPIO-anti hCG α antibody immunomagnetic ...
D'Andrade Amy C - - 2012
Incarcerated parents attempting to reunify with their children in foster care can find it difficult to complete the activities on their court-ordered case plans, such as drug treatment services and visitation with children. Although much has been written regarding the obstacles that are likely to interfere with reunification for incarcerated ...
Pleadin Jelka - - 2012
Maize (Zea mays) is one of the most common crops in Croatia that is often contaminated with mycotoxins. The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method as a screening immunological method has become very popular in the determination of mycotoxins contamination of cereals, as it has many advantages such as a ...
Caranci Ferdinando - - 2012
The orbit may be injured directly or indirectly. Blunt and penetrating trauma occurs with equal frequency. Soft tissue swelling often obscures direct clinical evaluation of the globe, limits ocular motion, and may limit clinical assessment of vision. Plain film radiographs of the orbits and sinuses are rarely used for diagnosis ...
Sahakitrungruang Chucheep - - 2012
: Several treatments have been described for hemorrhagic radiation proctitis. The treatment outcomes are variable. Colonic irrigation and oral antibiotics for hemorrhagic radiation proctitis have been recently reported to be a novel and promising therapeutic approach. However, a comparative study of this treatment has never been investigated. : This study ...
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