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Baeten Jared - - 2012
Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP), in which HIV uninfected persons with ongoing HIV risk use oral antiretroviral medications as chemoprophylaxis against sexual HIV acquisition, is a promising new HIV prevention strategy. During the past 2 years, proof-of-concept that PrEP protects against sexual HIV acquisition has been demonstrated in three clinical trials, conducted ...
Nilsson Bo - - 2012
The tick-over theory was first introduced in the 1970s to explain the presence of the initial C3b molecules, which are able to trigger complement activation by the alternative pathway in human plasma under physiological conditions. After the identification of the thioester, the predominant hypothesis has been that this bond is ...
Risitano Antonio M AM Department of Biochemistry and Medical Biotechnologies, Federico II University, Naples, Italy. - - 2012
The recent availability of eculizumab as the first complement inhibitor renewed the interest for complement-mediated damage in several human diseases. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) may be considered the paradigm a disease caused by complement dysregulation specifically on erythrocytes; in fact, PNH is a clonal, non-malignant, hematological disorder characterized by the ...
Barratt-Due Andreas - - 2012
Attenuating the sepsis-induced systemic inflammatory response, with subsequent homeostatic imbalance, has for years been one of the main tasks in sepsis related research. Complement and the TLR family constitute two important upstream sensor and effector-systems of innate immunity. Although they act as partly independent branches of pattern recognition, recent evidence ...
Nakamura Hisashi H Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, University of Texas Medical School, Houston, TX 77030, - - 2012
To diagnose Thiel-Behnke dystrophy, an autosomal dominant disease of the anterior basement membrane/Bowman membrane complex and corneal stroma, currently relies primarily on the overall clinical presentation of patient complaints, inheritance pattern, and physical appearance of the corneal findings on slit-lamp examination. Key challenges to accurately identifying the disease are variable ...
Lea Susan M - - 2012
In a field where structure has finally begun to have a real impact, a series of new structures over the last two years have further extended our understanding of some of the critical regulatory events of the complement system. Notably, information has begun to flow from larger assemblies of components ...
de Cordoba Santiago Rodriguez - - 2012
During the last decade, numerous studies have associated genetic variations in complement components and regulators with a number of chronic and infectious diseases. The functional characterization of these complement protein variants, in addition to recent structural advances in understanding of the assembly, activation and regulation of the AP C3 convertase, ...
Rinchai Darawan D The Centre for Research and Development of Medical Diagnostic Laboratories, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, - - 2012
Septicemia is the most severe form of melioidosis caused by the Gram-negative bacterium, Burkholderia pseudomallei. Here, we show that levels of IL-27p28 transcript and protein were both significantly elevated in patients with sepsis, particularly melioidosis and in patients with unfavorable disease outcome. Moreover, human monocytes/macrophages and neutrophils were the major ...
Schmidt-Kassow Maren - - 2012
Physical activity has been shown to enhance circulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in animals and humans. However, the exact time course and sex-specific modulation of peripheral BDNF in response to exercise are still poorly understood. We examined the kinetics of BDNF serum concentrations in response to perceived high-intensity and low-intensity ...
Brown Russell E - - 2012
In marked contrast to several other species, including rats and humans, leptin gene expression is undetectable in mouse brain. This unexpected finding may reflect unique energy regulation pathways in the mouse. We investigated possible mechanisms by which leptin (ob) gene expression is suppressed in mouse brain: (a) the possibility that ...
Yang Lan - - 2012
It is well known that emotion can modify the experience of pain. However, it is unclear how an emotional state and its concomitant neural activity affects activity in brain regions responsive to pain, thus altering the experience of pain itself. In this study, we examined the effect of sad mood ...
Takahashi Junichi - - 2012
A previous behavioral study showed that a group of individuals with high vividness of visual imagery (High group), as determined from the score for the Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire (VVIQ), could perceive the apparent motion path more strongly than a group of individuals with low vividness of visual imagery ...
Vickers Andrew J AJ Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. - - 2012
Although acupuncture is widely used for chronic pain, there remains considerable controversy as to its value. We aimed to determine the effect size of acupuncture for 4 chronic pain conditions: back and neck pain, osteoarthritis, chronic headache, and shoulder pain. We conducted a systematic review to identify randomized controlled trials ...
Halliday Jo J Boyd Orr Centre for Population and Ecosystem Health, College of Medicine, Veterinary Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK. - - 2012
Early detection of disease outbreaks in human and animal populations is crucial to the effective surveillance of emerging infectious diseases. However, there are marked geographical disparities in capacity for early detection of outbreaks, which limit the effectiveness of global surveillance strategies. Linking surveillance approaches for emerging and neglected endemic zoonoses, ...
Roche Benjamin - - 2012
The increasing number of zoonotic diseases spilling over from a range of wild animal species represents a particular concern for public health, especially in light of the current dramatic trend of biodiversity loss. To understand the ecology of these multi-host pathogens and their response to environmental degradation and species extinctions, ...
Wood James L N JL Disease Dynamics Unit, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 OES, UK. - - 2012
Many serious emerging zoonotic infections have recently arisen from bats, including Ebola, Marburg, SARS-coronavirus, Hendra, Nipah, and a number of rabies and rabies-related viruses, consistent with the overall observation that wildlife are an important source of emerging zoonoses for the human population. Mechanisms underlying the recognized association between ecosystem health ...
Lawson Becki - - 2012
Finch trichomonosis, caused by the protozoal parasite Trichomonas gallinae, was first recognized as an emerging infectious disease of British passerines in 2005. The first year of seasonal epidemic mortality occurred in 2006 with significant declines of greenfinch Carduelis chloris and chaffinch Fringilla coelebs populations. Here, we demonstrate that large-scale mortality, ...
Lafferty Kevin D - - 2012
Past models have suggested host-parasite coextinction could lead to linear, or concave down relationships between free-living species richness and parasite richness. I explored several models for the relationship between parasite richness and biodiversity loss. Life cycle complexity, low generality of parasites and sensitivity of hosts reduced the robustness of parasite ...
Almberg Emily S - - 2012
Wildlife reintroductions select or treat individuals for good health with the expectation that these individuals will fare better than infected animals. However, these individuals, new to their environment, may also be particularly susceptible to circulating infections and this may result in high morbidity and mortality, potentially jeopardizing the goals of ...
McCallum Hamish - - 2012
Invading infectious diseases can, in theory, lead to the extinction of host populations, particularly if reservoir species are present or if disease transmission is frequency-dependent. The number of historic or prehistoric extinctions that can unequivocally be attributed to infectious disease is relatively small, but gathering firm evidence in retrospect is ...
Woolhouse Mark M Centre for Immunity, Infection and Evolution, University of Edinburgh, Ashworth Laboratories, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK. - - 2012
There are 219 virus species that are known to be able to infect humans. The first of these to be discovered was yellow fever virus in 1901, and three to four new species are still being found every year. Extrapolation of the discovery curve suggests that there is still a ...
Dye Christopher - - 2012
To devise and implement effective health policy, we must define the problem, choose the tools, craft the policy, build consensus, set goals and deadlines, raise funds and take action. Success or failure depends on the perception of risk, the strength of the underlying science, the efficacy of the technology, ownership ...
Cunningham Andrew A - - 2012
An introduction to the theme issue that includes papers that identify how, where and why infectious diseases in wildlife emerge, while also addressing their possible conservation impacts.
Travis Ruth C RC Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom. - - 2013
High dairy protein intake has been found to be associated with increased prostate cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). To further examine this possible relationship, we investigated the hypothesis that a genetic polymorphism in the lactase (LCT) gene might be associated with elevated dairy ...
Humphreys Ian R - - 2012
Decline of cell-mediated immunity is often attributed to decaying T-cell numbers and their distribution in peripheral organs. This study examined the hypothesis that qualitative as well as quantitative changes contribute to the declining efficacy of CD8(+) T-cell memory. Using a model of influenza virus infection, where loss of protective CD8(+) ...
Loja Melissa N MN School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, - - 2013
Noninvasive localized measurement of extracellular pH in cancer tissues can have a significant impact on the management of cancer. Despite its significance, there are limited approaches for rapid and noninvasive measurement of local pH in a clinical environment. In this study, we demonstrate the potential of noninvasive topical delivery of ...
Ahlehoff O - - 2013
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disorder associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Systemic anti-inflammatory drugs, including biological agents, are widely used in the treatment of patients with moderate to severe psoriasis and may attenuate the risk of cardiovascular disease events. We therefore examined the rate of cardiovascular disease events in ...
Dittwald Piotr - - 2013
Inverse paralogous low-copy repeats (IP-LCRs) can cause genome instability by nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR)-mediated balanced inversions. When disrupting a dosage-sensitive gene(s), balanced inversions can lead to abnormal phenotypes. We delineated the genome-wide distribution of IP-LCRs >1 kB in size with >95% sequence identity and mapped the genes, potentially intersected by ...
Litchfield Lacey M LM Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Center for Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, Kentucky, - - 2012
Chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II (COUP-TFII) is an orphan nuclear receptor that acts as a transcriptional activator or repressor in a cell type-dependent manner. Best characterized for its role in the regulation of angiogenesis during mouse development, COUP-TFII also plays important roles in glucose metabolism and cancer. Expression ...
Krishnan Subramanian S Division of Infectious Diseases, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90027, - - 2013
The interaction of outer membrane protein A (OmpA) with its receptor, Ecgp96 (a homologue of Hsp90β), is critical for the pathogenesis of Escherichia coli K1 meningitis. Since Hsp90 chaperones Toll-like receptors (TLRs), we examined the role of TLRs in E. coli K1 infection. Herein, we show that newborn TLR2(-/-) mice are ...
Kolton Max - - 2012
Here we report the draft genome sequence of Flavobacterium sp. strain F52, isolated from the rhizosphere of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Maccabi). Flavobacterium spp. are ubiquitous in the rhizospheres of agricultural crops; however, little is known about their physiology. To our knowledge, this is the first published genome ...
Hechler Torsten - - 2012
Bovine foamy virus (BFV), or bovine spumaretrovirus, is an infectious agent of cattle with no obvious disease association but high prevalence in its host. Here, we report two complete BFV sequences, BFV-Riems, isolated in 1978 in East Germany, and BFV100, isolated in 2005 in Poland. Both new BFV isolates share ...
Kotagal Suresh - - 2012
Children with autism spectrum disorder demonstrate an increased prevalence of difficulties with sleep initiation and maintenance. The consequences may include alterations in daytime behavior, memory, and learning in patients, and significant stress in caretakers. The dysregulation of melatonin synthesis, sensitization to environmental stimuli, behavioral insomnia syndromes, delayed sleep phase syndrome, ...
Lin Jainn-Jim - - 2012
Encephalitis may present with seizures or status epilepticus, and the etiology is usually presumed. Specific antibodies to ion channels, receptors, and other synaptic proteins were identified during the past decade. However, only a few studies investigated antiglutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies and antibodies to cell membrane ion channels or surface antigens ...
Kim Hyungtae - - 2012
Brucella abortus is a major pathogen that infects livestock and humans. A new strain of B. abortus (A13334) was isolated from the fetal gastric fluid of a dairy cow, with the aim of using it to compare genetic properties, analyze virulence factor, and survey the epidemiological relationship to other Brucella ...
Jung Jaejoon - - 2012
We present the genome sequence of Alishewanella aestuarii B11(T) (=KCTC 22051(T)=DSM 19476(T)). This species, isolated from tidal flat sediment, was reported to be a novel species. A. aestuarii is known to degrade pectin, an important component of plant cell wall. The presence of the genes related to pectin metabolism in ...
van Eekeren Inge C M - - 2012
An osteochondral defect (OD) is a lesion involving the articular cartilage and the underlying subchondral bone. ODs of the talus can severely impact on the quality of life of patients, who are usually young and athletic. The primary treatment for ODs that are too small for fixation, consists of arthroscopic ...
Pepper Dawn - - 2012
: To describe parental perceptions of decision making concerning their extremely premature newborns who received care in a level III neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). : Seven parents of preterm infants who were born at 24 to 26 weeks' gestation at a western Canadian tertiary NICU. : Qualitative, interpretive description, ...
Elliott Christopher S - - 2012
The overlap between interstitial cystitis-painful bladder syndrome and overactive bladder can present a diagnostic challenge to the treating practitioner. Both can present with similar patient symptoms. Further compounding this dilemma is the fact that no gold standard test exists to differentiate one from the other. This review will serve to ...
Miquel Juliette - - 2012
Cutaneous manifestations are commonly observed in pediatric patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Acanthosis nigricans, however, is rarely reported, and even less often in association with neuropsychiatric manifestations of lupus erythematosus. We describe a 9-year-old boy with acute behavioral and cognitive deterioration, combined with cutaneous, diffuse hyperpigmented and hyperkeratotic plaques. Cerebral ...
Pleadin Jelka - - 2012
Maize (Zea mays) is one of the most common crops in Croatia that is often contaminated with mycotoxins. The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method as a screening immunological method has become very popular in the determination of mycotoxins contamination of cereals, as it has many advantages such as a ...
Caranci Ferdinando - - 2012
The orbit may be injured directly or indirectly. Blunt and penetrating trauma occurs with equal frequency. Soft tissue swelling often obscures direct clinical evaluation of the globe, limits ocular motion, and may limit clinical assessment of vision. Plain film radiographs of the orbits and sinuses are rarely used for diagnosis ...
Hanson Brian - - 2012
: Chronic radiation proctopathy is associated with significant morbidity. The effectiveness of endoscopic and medical therapies has not been evaluated. : The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the effectiveness of endoscopic and comparative medical therapies for chronic radiation proctopathy. : A comprehensive search Medline ...
Ke Yuehua - - 2012
Brucella melitensis is an intracellular pathogen that induces chronic infection in humans. Here, we report the genome sequences of 16M and its two derivatives, 16M1w and 16M13w, which were allowed to adapt in vivo for 1 and 13 weeks, respectively. Our findings contribute to the investigation of adaptive mutations and ...
Kim Minsik - - 2012
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium rough strain-specific phage SSU5 was isolated, and its whole genome was sequenced. The 103,229-bp-long double-stranded DNA genome of SSU5 encodes 130 open reading frames with one tRNA for asparagine. Genomic analysis revealed that SSU5 might be the phylogenetic origin of cryptic plasmid pHCM2 harbored by Salmonella ...
Kuo Hsiao-Ting - - 2012
This investigation was aimed at using superparamagnetic particles to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (SPIO-ELISA) of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) to enhance detection sensitivity of hCG. We found that N-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) was the best cross-linking reagent to link anti hCG α antibody to superparamagnetic particle (SPIO-anti hCG α antibody immunomagnetic ...
Tettelin Hervé - - 2012
Mycobacterium massiliense (Mycobacterium abscessus group) is an emerging pathogen causing pulmonary disease and skin and soft tissue infections. We report the genome sequence of the type strain CCUG 48898.
Imhoff Laurel R - - 2012
The impact of anal incontinence on women's sexual function is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between anal incontinence and sexual activity and functioning in women. This is a cross-sectional study. This investigation was conducted in a community-based integrated health care delivery system. Included ...
Preziosi Giuseppe - - 2012
Constipation and fecal incontinence affect 68% of patients with multiple sclerosis, but management is empirical. Transanal irrigation has been used successfully in patients with neurogenic bowel dysfunction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of transanal irrigation on the bowel symptoms and general health status in these ...
Sun Surong - - 2012
We deciphered the genome of Yersinia pestis strain 2501, isolated from the Junggar Basin, a newly discovered great gerbil plague focus in Xinjiang, China. The total length of assembly was 4,597,322 bp, and 4,265 coding sequences were predicted within the genome. It is the first Y. pestis genome from this ...
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