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Fatch Robin R Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco (UCSF), Box 0886, San Francisco, CA 94143-0886, - - 2013
Early receipt of HIV care and ART is essential for improving treatment outcomes, but is dependent first upon HIV testing. Heavy alcohol consumption is common in sub-Saharan Africa, a barrier to ART adherence, and a potential barrier to HIV care. We conducted a population-based study of 2,516 adults in southwestern ...
Wong Dean F DF The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287-0807, USA. - - 2013
The primary objectives of this study were to assess the safety of [(18)F]flutemetamol injection and determine the level of association between the quantitative estimates of brain uptake of [(18)F]flutemetamol and the quantitative immunohistochemical (IHC) estimates of amyloid levels in cerebral cortex biopsies obtained during shunt placement in patients with normal ...
Curry Jonathan L JL Department of Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA. - - 2013
Dermatologic toxicities associated with anticancer-targeted therapy include hand-foot skin reactions, vasculitis, cutaneous epithelial proliferations, such as keratosis, keratoacanthoma, and invasive squamous cell carcinoma. In this case report, we describe alterations of tumor morphology and patterns of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI) expression in a patient who received GSK2118436, a second-generation RAF ...
Bernhardt Vipa V Institute for Exercise and Environmental Medicine, Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital Dallas and University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75231, - - 2013
Obesity affects lung function and gas exchange and imposes mechanical ventilatory limitations during exercise that could disrupt the predictability of Pa(CO(2)) from end-tidal P(CO(2)) (P(ETCO(2))), an important clinical tool for assessing gas exchange efficiency during exercise testing. Pa(CO(2)) has been estimated during exercise with good accuracy in normal-weight individuals by ...
Tanner Nichole T NT Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Allergy and Sleep Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA. - - 2013
Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) has revolutionized the ability of bronchoscopists to visualize and sample structures surrounding the tracheobronchial tree. It has been shown to be safe, minimally invasive, and highly accurate in the staging and diagnosing of mediastinal diseases. A prior survey of pulmonary fellowship program directors conducted in 2004 showed ...
Burnstock Geoffrey - - 2013
ATP is a cotransmitter with glutamate, noradrenaline, GABA, acetylcholine and dopamine in the brain. There is a widespread presence of both adenosine (P1) and P2 nucleotide receptors in the brain on both neurons and glial cells. Adenosine receptors play a major role in presynaptic neuromodulation, while P2X ionotropic receptors are ...
Shestov A A - - 2013
A network model has been developed for analysis of tumor glucose metabolism from (13)C MRS isotope exchange kinetic data. Data were obtained from DB1 melanoma cells grown on polystyrene microcarrier beads contained in a 20-mm diameter perfusion chamber in a 9.4 T Varian NMR spectrometer; the cells were perfused with ...
Rong Zimei - - 2013
The brain responds to hypoxia with an increase in cerebral blood flow (CBF). Many mechanisms have been proposed for this hypoxic vasodilation, but none has gained universal acceptance. Although there is some disagreement about the shape of the relationship between arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO(2)) and CBF, it is generally ...
Kutsuna Nobuo - - 2013
Many studies have demonstrated cognitive function disorders including space learning disorders after global brain ischemia (GBI). Previous research on space perception and learning has indicated that the retrosplenial cortex (RS) is strongly involved. We performed immunostaining with doublecortin (DCX) for neurons with plasticity potential in the RS and investigated the ...
Thompson Alecia - - 2013
In a pilot study, we found that the NIRS measurements were highly variable and dramatically decreased or disappeared sporadically while monitoring gastro-intestinal (GI) StO(2) on preterm neonates. We hypothesized that the light absorption characteristics of different neonatal and infant stool types may be interfering with NIRS GI measurements. Methods: Meconium, ...
Ceruti Stefania - - 2013
Purines and pyrimidines are fundamental signaling molecules in controlling the survival and proliferation of astrocytes, as well as in mediating cell-to-cell communication between glial cells and neurons in the healthy brain. The malignant transformation of astrocytes towards progressively more aggressive brain tumors (from astrocytoma to anaplastic glioblastoma) leads to modifications ...
Okunieff Paul - - 2013
Tumor hypoxia is probably the most important not yet measurable factor that predicts the outcome of cancer therapy. Hypoxic tumors are resistant to radiation, chemotherapy, and surgery. They signal tumor cells to grow, invade, survive cytotoxic-factor assault, and increase metastatic activity. Therapies aimed at reversing hypoxia-related treatment resistance or normalizing ...
Cai Kejia - - 2013
A few studies have reported that magnetization transfer (MT) -preparation interacts with blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) contrast used for functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, the mechanism is still not well established. This study shows that blood oxygenation level itself affects MT contrast. MT ratio (MTR) decreases with increased ...
Scholkmann Felix - - 2013
Ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) is a general feature of living -biological systems. To gain further insights into the origin of UPE and its physiological significance, the aim of the present study was to investigate the connection between hemodynamics (HD), oxygenation (OX), and UPE. Therefore, during venous and arterial occlusion (VO, ...
Ma Jun - - 2013
Although glycoproteins possess a variety of functional and structural roles in intracellular and intercellular activities, the effect of ionizing radiation (IR) on glycosylation is largely unknown. To explore this effect, we established a sandwich assay in which PHA-L, a phytohaemagglutinin that agglutinates leukocytes, was used as a coating layer to ...
Wang Sarah Y - - 2013
A novel cancer treatment method is being designed using a combination of iron oxide (Fe(3)O(4)) nanoparticles (IONPs) and Pluronic F-127 (PF127). IONPs have been used for heating tumors via an alternating electromagnetic (AEM) field. PF127 is a polymer possessing thermo-reversible and concentration-dependent gelation properties in aqueous solutions. PF127, as a ...
Thews Oliver - - 2013
The functional activity of p-glycoprotein (Pgp) can be increased in vitro by an extracellular acidosis via activation of MAP kinases (p38, ERK1/2). In order to study these effects in vivo a new (68)Ga-labeled PET tracer was developed which serves as a substrate of the Pgp and therefore indirectly mirrors the ...
Eckerbom Per - - 2013
MR examinations (Achieva 3 T, Philips, Best, The Netherlands) were performed at five different occasions in a healthy volunteer (male 60 years) and in one renal cancer patient (male 78 years) with normal renal function (creatinine 88 μmol/L). Intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) coefficients D + D* were measured using respiratory-triggered ...
Cai Kejia - - 2013
The main goal of this study was to use multimodality imaging methods to reveal the heterogeneity in prostate cancer and seek the correlation between the characteristic heterogeneity and tumor aggressiveness. Here we report the preliminary data on chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) and magnetization transfer (MT) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ...
Hamakawa Hiroshi - - 2013
Forced oscillation techniques (FOTs) using sine curved oscillatory waves are used for assessing the lung periphery, but measure only overall respiratory mechanics. Therefore, mathematical models of the respiratory system serve as vehicles to obtain detailed mechanics. Although the simplest model of respiratory mechanics is a simple 3-element series (RIC) model, ...
Sasajima Tadahiro - - 2013
Eleven weeks after surgery, a fine microvessel network was seen in the feet of patients with arteriosclerosis obliterans treated by distal vein arterialization. A possible mechanism for establishment of blood flow to, and biological maintenance of, the graft in the foot, in relation to oxygen consumption rate during walking was ...
Fisher Elaine M - - 2013
Previously we noted an abrupt rise in gastric intracellular pH (IC pH) and bicarbonate buffering between 15 and 30 min of cardiac arrest which we termed agonal alkalinization, failure of pH regulation. Agonal alkalinization may represent the transition point between reversible and irreversible injury. We asked the question, what is ...
Wypych Dorota - - 2013
Calcium signaling is probably one of the evolutionary oldest and the most common way by which the signal can be transmitted from the cell environment to the cytoplasmic calcium binding effectors. Calcium signal is fast and due to diversity of calcium binding proteins it may have a very broad effect ...
Bruley Duane F - - 2013
We have defined the Zymogen Protein C (ZPC) to Activated Protein C (APC) process as the "silver bullet" of blood anticoagulation. This definition suggests that the anticoagulation activity occurs when and where it is needed, resulting in local anticoagulation without enhanced bleeding. It is important for man to be able ...
Yoshihara Kouichi - - 2013
The purpose of this study is to determine when and where the brain microvasculature changes its network in response to chronic hypoxia. To identify the hypoxia-induced structural adaptation, we longitudinally imaged cortical microvasculature at the same location within a mouse somatosensory cortex with two-photon microscopy repeatedly for up to 1 ...
Ma Jun - - 2013
Various members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family mitigate radiation-induced damage. We designed and synthesized the binding domain peptide of FGF-2 (FGF-P) with a dimer form resistant to peptidase and examined its mitigatory effect on murine bone marrow cells. NIH Swiss mice were exposed to different doses of total ...
Nordquist Lina - - 2013
Sustained hyperglycemia is closely associated with increased risk to develop nephropathy. We have previously reported alterations in the intrarenal oxygen metabolism already after the early onset of diabetes. Furthermore, formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGE) is postulated as a major contributor to diabetic nephropathy. We therefore investigated the possible relationship ...
Xu H N - - 2013
Currently, the gold standard to establish benign vs. malignant breast tissue diagnosis requires an invasive biopsy followed by tissue fixation for subsequent histopathological examination. This process takes at least 24 h resulting in tissues that are less suitable for molecular, functional, or metabolic analysis. We have recently conducted redox scanning ...
Muehlemann Thomas - - 2013
The standard flight level for commercial airliners is ∼12 km (40 kft; air pressure: ∼ 200 hPa), the maximum certification altitude of modern airliners may be as high as 43-45 kft. Loss of structural integrity of an airplane may result in sudden depressurization of the cabin potentially leading to hypoxia ...
Xiao Zhenyu - - 2013
Inflammatory molecules (IMs) play an important role in ionizing radiation (IR)-induced soft tissue damage. The alteration of IMs as a function of time was studied with a protein array containing 62 IMs in mouse cutaneous soft tissues exposed to 30 Gy. The results showed that: (1) 2 days after irradiation, ...
Masamoto Kazuto - - 2013
To explore the spatiotemporal dynamics of red blood cells (RBCs) and plasma flow in three-dimensional (3D) microvascular networks of the cerebral cortex, we performed two-photon microscopic imaging of the cortical microvasculature in genetically engineered rats in which the RBCs endogenously express green fluorescent protein (GFP). Water-soluble quantum dots (Qdots) were ...
Wang Jianting - - 2013
Hollow gold nanospheres (HGN) may be delicately tuned to absorb near infrared light (NIR) by tailoring the diameter-to-shell ratio. This unique property can be utilized for enhancing the contrast for the NIR and X-ray/CT imaging, and also noninvasive and local, photothermal hyperthermia by conjugating cancer-targeting molecules on the particle surface. ...
Kondo Yuko - - 2013
We used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to evaluate cerebral blood oxygenation changes in subjects undergoing cesarean section under spinal anesthesia (SP) with hyperbaric bupivacaine (group H, 27 subjects) or isobaric bupivacaine (group I, 15 subjects). In group H, total-Hb, oxy-Hb, and mean blood pressure (MBP) within 20 min after SP were ...
Amemiya Ai - - 2013
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of stress on -prefrontal cortex (PFC), emotion (using visual analogue scale, VAS, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, STAI), and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Two types of stress were applied: (1) malocclusion-induced physical stress and (2) mental stress induced by an ...
Holdsworth Luke - - 2013
This study of high altitude physiology was undertaken during an 11-day expedition to the Himalaya with ascent to Annapurna base camp (4,130 m) reaching it on the sixth day. Fourteen male UK residents (13 aged 16-17 years; 1 adult) measured arterial oxygen saturation (SaO(2)) and heart rate (HR) at rest ...
Chen Chun - - 2013
In this study, we compared two in vitro collagen production assays ([(3)H]-proline incorporation and Sirius Red) for their ability to determine the pattern shift from soluble to deposited collagen. The effect of the antifibrotic agent, triptolide (TPL), on collagen production was also studied. The results showed that: (1) 48 h ...
Hesford Catherine - - 2013
Wearable, wireless near-infrared (NIR) spectrometers were used to compare changes in on-ice short-track skating race simulations over 1,500 m with a 3-min cycle ergometry test at constant power output (400 W). The subjects were six male elite short-track speed skaters. Both protocols elicited a rapid desaturation (∆TSI%) in the muscle ...
Sato Masakaze - - 2013
Several distinctive activity patterns have been observed in the brain at rest. The aim of this study was to determine whether the STAI index can be predicted from changes in the oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations by using two-channel prefrontal cortex (PFC) NIRS data for the resting state. The study ...
Braganhol Elizandra - - 2013
Among the pathological alterations that give tumor cells invasive potential, purinergic signaling is emerging as an important component. Studies performed in in vitro, in vivo and ex vivo glioma models indicate that alterations in the purinergic signaling are involved in the progression of these tumors. Gliomas have low expression of ...
Lucas Heather R - - 2013
The vascular hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) considers cerebral hypoperfusion as a primary trigger for neuronal dysfunction. We have previously reported that red blood cells (RBCs) bind amyloid, which are the characteristic deposits found in AD brains, and interact with amyloid on the vasculature [1-3]. Oxidative stress triggered by these ...
Vaupel Peter - - 2013
Hypoxia is a characteristic of many solid tumors, can lead to the development of an aggressive phenotype and acquired treatment resistance, and is an independent, adverse prognostic indicator. In this literature review, we show that hypoxia is also a typical feature in prostate cancer (PC), the most commonly diagnosed cancer ...
Ellert-Miklaszewska Aleksandra - - 2013
Cannabinoids are a group of structurally heterogeneous but pharmacologically related compounds, including plant-derived cannabinoids, synthetic substances and endogenous cannabinoids, such as anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol. Cannabinoids elicit a wide range of central and peripheral effects mostly mediated through cannabinoid receptors. There are two types of specific G(i/o)-protein-coupled receptors cloned so far, ...
Patel Kushang V - - 2013
The red cell distribution width (RDW) is a component of the automated complete blood count (CBC) that quantifies heterogeneity in the size of circulating erythrocytes. Higher RDW values reflect greater variation in red blood cell (RBC) volumes and are associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. The mechanisms ...
Wang Bin - - 2013
Noninvasive injection of pro-angiogenic compounds such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has shown promising results in regenerating cardiac microvasculature. However, these results have failed to translate into successful clinical trials in part due to the short half-life of VEGF in circulation. Increasing the dose of VEGF may increase its ...
Swiatek-Machado Karolina - - 2013
STAT (signal transducers and activators of transcription) are latent cytoplasmic transcription factors that function as downstream effectors of cytokine and growth factor receptor signaling. The canonical JAK/STAT signaling pathway involves the activation of Janus kinases (JAK) or growth factors receptor kinases, phosphorylation of STAT proteins, their dimerization and translocation into ...
Maguire David - - 2013
In the wake of the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the recent Level 7 nuclear event at the Fukushima Daiichi plant, there has been heightened awareness of the possibility of radiological terrorism and accidents and the need for techniques to estimate radiation levels after such events. A number of approaches to ...
Kaminska Bozena - - 2013
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling is involved in the regulation of proliferation, differentiation and survival/or apoptosis of many cells, including glioma cells. TGF-β acts via specific receptors activating multiple intracellular pathways resulting in phosphorylation of receptor-regulated Smad2/3 proteins that associate with the common mediator, Smad4. Such complex translocates to ...
Litorja Maritoni - - 2013
The determination of the level of oxygenation in optically accessible tissues using multispectral or hyperspectral imaging (HSI) of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin has special appeal in clinical work due to its noninvasiveness, ease of use, and capability of providing molecular and anatomical information at near video rates during surgery. In this ...
Tsujii Takeo - - 2013
We examined the acute effect of physical exercise on prefrontal cortex activity in older adults using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Fourteen older adults visited our laboratory twice: once for exercise and once for the control condition. On each visit, subjects performed working memory tasks before and after moderate intensity exercise ...
Nakada Mitsutoshi - - 2013
Protein tyrosine kinases are enzymes that are capable of adding a phosphate group to specific tyrosines on target proteins. A receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) is a tyrosine kinase located at the cellular membrane and is activated by binding of a ligand via its extracellular domain. Protein phosphorylation by kinases is ...
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