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Takeuchi Masato M Department of Genomic Drug Discovery Science, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto, - - 2013
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The free fatty acid FFA1 receptor and GPR120 are GPCRs whose endogenous ligands are medium- and long-chain FFAs, and they are important in regulating insulin and GLP-1 secretion respectively. Given that the ligands of FFA1 receptor and GPR120 have similar properties, selective pharmacological tools are required to ...
Qin Danping D Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Showa University Fujigaoka Hospital, Yokohama, - - 2013
The renoprotection of the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA) is considered to be mainly via its antifibrotic activity, and the possibility that it may also have antiinflammatory effects has not been studied. We tested the hypothesis that MRA might influence the inflammatory changes that accompany experimental glomerular injury. Administration of vehicle ...
Handoko Stephanus Daniel - - 2012
Predicting binding between macromolecule and small molecule is a crucial phase in the field of rational drug design. AutoDock Vina, one of the most widely used docking software released in 2009, uses an empirical scoring function to evaluate the binding affinity between the molecules and employs the iterated local search ...
Watt Kymberly D - - 2012
By analyzing 26,414 patients [12,589 with hepatitis C virus (HCV)] in the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients Database, we sought to determine comparative risk factors (including primary immunosuppression) predictive of death and graft loss among patients with HCV and patients without HCV. Immunosuppression was examined at the baseline and as ...
Zimmerman Danielle - - 2012
Ang-(1-7) [angiotensin-(1-7)] is a biologically active heptapeptide component of the RAS (renin-angiotensin system), and is generated in the kidney at relatively high levels, via enzymatic pathways that include ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2). The biological effects of Ang-(1-7) in the kidney are primarily mediated by interaction with the G-protein-coupled receptor Mas. ...
Wan Lin - - 2012
RNA-Seq is widely used in transcriptome studies, and the detection of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between two classes of individuals, e.g., cases versus controls, using RNA-Seq is of fundamental importance. Many statistical methods for DEG detection based on RNA-Seq data have been developed and most of them are based on ...
Rothbaum Perito Emily - - 2012
During long-term follow-up, 18% to 67% of pediatric liver transplant recipients are overweight or obese, with rates varying by age and pretransplant weight status. A similar prevalence of posttransplant obesity has been seen in adults. Adults also develop posttransplant metabolic syndrome and, consequently, cardiovascular disease at rates that exceed the ...
Egerdie R B - - 2012
Denosumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody against RANK ligand, increased bone mineral density (BMD) and reduced fracture risk vs placebo in a phase 3 trial in men with prostate cancer on androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). The present analysis of this study evaluated BMD changes after 36 months in responder subgroups ...
Park Eun Young - - 2012
The plasma level of LPA (lysophosphatidic acid) (200-600 nM) is well within the range that promotes proliferation and migration of vascular ECs (endothelial cells), yet vessels are quiescent and stable. In this report, we considered one explanation for this paradox: that ECs secrete agents that attenuate responsiveness to LPA. Indeed, ...
Freeberg Todd M - - 2012
The complex social worlds of many animal species may be linked to complex communicative systems in those species. We now have evidence in diverse taxa and in different communicative modalities suggesting that complexity in social groups can drive complexity in signalling systems. The aim of this theme issue is to ...
Flack Jessica C - - 2012
To build a theory of social complexity, we need to understand how aggregate social properties arise from individual interaction rules. Here, I review a body of work on the developmental dynamics of pigtailed macaque social organization and conflict management that provides insight into the mechanistic causes of multi-scale social systems. ...
Freeberg Todd M - - 2012
The 'social complexity hypothesis' for communication posits that groups with complex social systems require more complex communicative systems to regulate interactions and relations among group members. Complex social systems, compared with simple social systems, are those in which individuals frequently interact in many different contexts with many different individuals, and ...
Gustison Morgan L - - 2012
Primates are intensely social and exhibit extreme variation in social structure, making them particularly well suited for uncovering evolutionary connections between sociality and vocal complexity. Although comparative studies find a correlation between social and vocal complexity, the function of large vocal repertoires in more complex societies remains unclear. We compared ...
Krams Indrikis - - 2012
The Paridae family (chickadees, tits and titmice) is an interesting avian group in that species vary in important aspects of their social structure and many species have large and complex vocal repertoires. For this reason, parids represent an important set of species for testing the social complexity hypothesis for vocal ...
Ord Terry J - - 2012
Complex social communication is expected to evolve whenever animals engage in many and varied social interactions; that is, sociality should promote communicative complexity. Yet, informal comparisons among phylogenetically independent taxonomic groups seem to cast doubt on the putative role of social factors in the evolution of complex communication. Here, we ...
Nettle Daniel - - 2012
The complexity of different components of the grammars of human languages can be quantified. For example, languages vary greatly in the size of their phonological inventories, and in the degree to which they make use of inflectional morphology. Recent studies have shown that there are relationships between these types of ...
Dunbar R I M - - 2012
Primate societies are characterized by bonded social relationships of a kind that are rare in other mammal taxa. These bonded relationships, which provide the basis for coalitions, are underpinned by an endorphin mechanism mediated by social grooming. However, bonded relationships of this kind impose constraints on the size of social ...
Ramsier Marissa A - - 2012
The structure and function of primate communication have attracted much attention, and vocal signals, in particular, have been studied in detail. As a general rule, larger social groups emit more types of vocal signals, including those conveying the presence of specific types of predators. The adaptive advantages of receiving and ...
Pollard Kimberly A - - 2012
Social living goes hand in hand with communication, but the details of this relationship are rarely simple. Complex communication may be described by attributes as diverse as a species' entire repertoire, signallers' individualistic signatures, or complex acoustic phenomena within single calls. Similarly, attributes of social complexity are diverse and may ...
White David J - - 2012
The complex interrelationships among individuals within social environments can exert selection pressures on social skills: those behaviours and cognitive processes that allow animals to manipulate and out-reproduce others. Social complexity can also have a developmental effect on social skills by providing individuals with opportunities to hone their skills by dealing ...
Dobson Seth - - 2012
Recent comparative evidence suggests that anthropoid primates are the only vertebrates to exhibit a quantitative relationship between relative brain size and social group size. In this paper, I attempt to explain this pattern with regard to facial expressivity and social bonding. I hypothesize that facial motor control increases as a ...
delBarco-Trillo Javier - - 2012
Signal complexity has been linked to social complexity in vocal, but not chemical, communication. To address this gap, we examined the chemical complexity of male and female glandular secretions in eight species of Eulemur. In this diverse clade of macrosmatic primates, species differ by social or mating system and dominance ...
Prakash Amol - - 2012
Over the past few years, mass spectrometry has emerged as a technology to complement and potentially replace standard immunoassays in routine clinical core laboratories. Application of mass spectrometry to protein and peptide measurement can provide advantages including high sensitivity, the ability to multiplex analytes, and high specificity at the amino ...
Nguyen Christine M - - 2012
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects approximately 1.5 million people in the US. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitors have been shown to effectively treat and maintain remission in patients with moderately to severely active RA compared with conventional agents. The high acquisition cost of TNF-α inhibitors prohibits ...
Weston Matthew - - 2012
Soccer referees are required to keep up with play at all times to ensure optimal positioning in making key decisions. While the physiological aspects of soccer refereeing have been extensively reviewed, other key areas of preparation and performance have yet to be considered in detail. We present a contemporary examination ...
Knapik Aleksandra A AA Department of Molecular Physiology and Biological Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22903, - - 2012
The rut pathway of pyrimidine catabolism is a novel pathway that allows pyrimidine bases to serve as the sole nitrogen source in suboptimal temperatures. The rut operon in E. coli evaded detection until 2006, yet consists of seven proteins named RutA, RutB, etc. through RutG. The operon is comprised of ...
Vaur Sabine S University Bordeaux, Institut de Biochimie et Génétique Cellulaires, UMR 5095, F-33000 Bordeaux, - - 2012
Pds5 and Wpl1 act as anti-establishment factors preventing sister-chromatid cohesion until counteracted in S-phase by the cohesin acetyl-transferase Eso1. However, Pds5 is also required to maintain sister-chromatid cohesion in G2. Here, we show that Pds5 is essential for cohesin acetylation by Eso1 and ensures the maintenance of cohesion by promoting ...
Charles I - - 2012
Antisense strategies that target DNA·RNA hybrid structures offer potential for the development of new therapeutic drugs. The α-sarcin loop region of the 23S [corrected] rRNA domain has been shown to be a high value target for such strategies. Herein, aminoglycoside interaction with three RNA·DNA α-sarcin targeted duplexes (rR·dY, rR·S-dY, and ...
Guha Sonia - - 2012
Optimal neuronal activity requires that supporting cells provide both efficient nutrient delivery and waste disposal. The incomplete processing of engulfed waste by their lysosomes can lead to accumulation of residual material and compromise their support of neurons. As most degradative lysosomal enzymes function best at an acidic pH, lysosomal alkalinization ...
Zhu Yi - - 2012
A spectral analysis approach was developed for detailed study of time-resolved, dynamic changes in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) elasticity and adhesion to identify differences in VSMC from young and aged monkeys. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to measure Young's modulus of elasticity and adhesion as assessed by fibronectin ...
Kerr Eve A - - 2012
Performance measures that reward achieving blood pressure (BP) thresholds may contribute to overtreatment. We developed a tightly linked clinical action measure designed to encourage appropriate medical management and a marker of potential overtreatment, designed to monitor overly aggressive treatment of hypertension in the face of low diastolic BP. We conducted ...
Chan Paul S PS Saint Luke's Mid America Heart Institute, Kansas City, Missouri 64111, USA. - - 2012
Accurate estimation of favorable neurological survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest could provide critical information for physicians, patients, and families. Within the Get With the Guidelines-Resuscitation registry, we identified 42,957 patients from 551 hospitals admitted between January 2000 and October 2009 who were successfully resuscitated from an in-hospital cardiac arrest. A ...
Liapis Evangelos - - 2012
The R7 family of regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) is involved in many functions of the nervous system. This family includes RGS6, RGS7, RGS9, and RGS11 gene products and is defined by the presence of the characteristic first found in Disheveled, Egl-10, Pleckstrin (DEP), DEP helical extension (DHEX), Gγ-like, ...
Karamychev Valeri N VN Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, - - 2012
The frequency of DNA strand breaks produced by the decay of Auger electron-emitting radionuclides is inversely proportional to the distance of DNA nucleotides from the decay site; and thus is very sensitive to changes in the local conformation of the DNA. Analysis of the frequency of DNA breaks, or radioprobing, ...
Veeranagouda Yaligara Y GLAVAHCS, Los Angeles, CA, USA; UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90073, USA. - - 2012
Genetic analysis of Bacteroides fragilis (BF) is hindered because of the lack of efficient transposon mutagenesis methods. Here, we describe a simple method for transposon mutagenesis using EZ::TN5, a commercially available system that we optimized for use in BF638R. The modified EZ::TN5 transposon contains an Escherichia coli conditional origin of ...
Mortensen Brittany L - - 2012
Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen that has emerged as a prevalent source of nosocomial infections, most frequently causing ventilator-associated pneumonia. The emergence of pan-drug resistant strains magnifies the problem by reducing viable treatment options and effectively increasing the mortality rate associated with Acinetobacter infections. In light of this rising ...
Milloy Jeffrey A - - 2012
Modern mass spectrometers are now capable of producing hundreds of thousands of tandem (MS/MS) spectra per experiment, making the translation of these fragmentation spectra into peptide matches a common bottleneck in proteomics research. When coupled with experimental designs that enrich for post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation and/or include isotopically labeled ...
Szapáry László - - 2012
Statin therapy is the cornerstone of anti-atherosclerotic treatment, and it considered obligatory in the secondary prevention of atherosclerotic diseases. Rosuvastatin is well-known and efficacious lipid-lowering agent. Generic drugs are more frequently used instead of its ancestors. Generic rosuvastatin forms have been approved recently to the Central European market, but their ...
Costa Edja Maria Melo de Brito - - 2012
This in vitro study evaluated both the antimicrobial activity and the root canal cleaning ability of plant extracts used in irrigation solutions. The antimicrobial activities of the aroeira-da-praia (Schinus terebintifolius Raddi) and the quixabeira (Syderoxylum obtusifolium Roem & Schult) hydroalcoholic extracts, of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and of 0.12% chlorhexidine ...
Ryan Fiona S - - 2012
Satisfaction with the outcome of orthognathic treatment is generally high; however, an important minority remains dissatisfied with the results. The reasons for this could be inadequate patient understanding and preparation, external motivation, and unrealistic expectations. In-depth appreciation of these issues can be obtained using qualitative research methods, but there is ...
Shiguematsu Flávia Yuri - - 2012
Calcification and ossification of the ligamentum flavum or of the posterior longitudinal ligament are causes of compressive myelopathy, more frequent in the lower thoracic levels, and extremely rare in Western populations. Surgical decompression is the only therapy, but the disease is usually progressive, and its recurrence after surgery is common. ...
Bauer José Roberto de Oliveira - - 2012
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the tensile strength, elongation, microhardness, microstructure and fracture pattern of various metal ceramic alloys cast under different casting conditions. Two Ni-Cr alloys, Co-Cr and Pd-Ag were used. The casting conditions were as follows: electromagnetic induction under argon atmosphere, vacuum, using blowtorch ...
Galli Carlo - - 2012
Mini-implants are used to improve orthodontic anchorage, but optimal composition and surface characteristics have yet to be determined. We investigated the behavior of osteoblast-like cells on grade 4 commercially pure titanium and grade 5 titanium alloy with different surface treatments for mini-implants. MC3T3 cells were plated on machined, acid-etched, or ...
Antus Balázs - - 2012
Airway inflammation plays a central role in the pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Exposure to cigarette smoke induces the recruitment of inflammatory cells in the airways, which in turn produces various cytokines, chemokines, proteases and pro-inflammatory mediators leading ultimately to increased oxidative stress, a protease/anti-protease imbalance and progressive lung ...
Hampson Christopher O - - 2012
Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) has recently been implicated as a potential causal factor in the development of multiple sclerosis (MS). The treatment of jugular and azygous vein stenoses, characteristic of CCSVI, has been proposed as a potential component of therapy for MS. In the few short years since Dr. ...
Maekawa Tetsuya - - 2012
Transforming growth factor-α (TGFα) is thought to be involved in the regulation of endometrial cells. We investigated Tgfa mRNA expression, and the effects of TGFα on DNA-synthesis and gene expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP3) and IGF1 receptor in the mouse endometrial cells, because IGF1 ...
Altman Arie - - 2012
INTRODUCTION: The association between infections and autoimmune diseases (AID) has been well described in the medical literature. Several infectious agents have been implicated as inducers of autoimmune responses, such as Parvovirus B19, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, and hepatitis viruses. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We examined 1,173 sera from patients with 14 different ...
Horemans F - - 2012
When synthesizing molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), a few fundamental principles should be kept in mind. There is a strong correlation between porogen polarity, MIP microenvironment polarity and the imprinting effect itself. The combination of these parameters eventually determines the overall binding behavior of a MIP in a given solvent. In ...
Kubo Makoto - - 2012
Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are important therapeutic drugs for postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. However, adverse effects of AIs such as arthralgia have been extensively reported. We performed a joint prospective, multi-institutional investigation to find out whether a low-dose and short-term prednisolone is effective against AI-induced arthralgia in 27 ...
Mendez Marina - - 2012
The purpose of the present paper was to describe the range of lesions histologically diagnosed in an oral pathology laboratory in southern Brazil. A retrospective study of 8,168 specimen analyses recorded between 1995 and 2004 was conducted. The records were retrieved from the Oral Pathology Laboratory, School of Dentistry, Federal ...
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