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Results 301 - 350 of 2309
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Lintomen Leticia - - 2012
Asthma and obesity are growing epidemics in the world. It is well-established that obesity worsens the asthma outcomes. High-fat diet-induced obesity in mice exacerbates the pulmonary eosinophilic inflammation. We have used wild type (WT) and ob/ob mice to further explore the mechanisms by which obesity aggravates the pulmonary eosinophilic inflammation. ...
Mutsatsa S - - 2012
ACCESSIBLE SUMMARY: •  Evidence from research relating to the way genes affect medication effectiveness and side effects is reviewed. •  Currently, there is strong evidence suggesting that drug response varies across individuals and this is particularly so across racial and ethnic lines. These differences are genetically determined. •  There is ...
Nedeltcheva Arlet V AV Department of Medicine, Section of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, - - 2012
Insufficient sleep is associated with changes in glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, and insulin action. Despite widespread use of weight-loss diets for metabolic risk reduction, the effects of insufficient sleep on glucose regulation in overweight dieters are not known. To examine the consequences of recurrent sleep restriction on 24-h blood glucose ...
Liu Feng - - 2012
NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) is a member of the NADPH oxidase family that has not been well characterized in the melanocytic cell lineage. Here we demonstrated that Nox1 and Nox4 were detected in melanocytic lineage, with only Nox1 detected in normal human melanocytes and Nox4 in a subset of metastatic ...
Satheesh Madhav Nookala Venkala - - 2012
The oral mucosa is an appropriate route for drug delivery systems, as it evades first-pass metabolism, enhances drug bioavailability and provides the means for rapid drug transport to the systematic circulation. This delivery system offers a more comfortable and convenient delivery route compared with the intravenous route. Although numerous drugs ...
Eike M C - - 2012
Expression of the major autoimmune risk loci DRB1 and DQB1 is regulated by the class II MHC (major histocompatibility complex) transactivator (CIITA), making the CIITA gene a strong autoimmune risk locus candidate. A CIITA promoter single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs3087456 (-168 A/G), has indeed been associated with several autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid ...
You Wanhui - - 2012
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In plants, transposons and non-protein-coding repeats are epigenetically silenced by CG and non-CG methylation. This pattern of methylation is mediated in part by small RNAs and two specialized RNA polymerases, termed Pol IV and Pol V, in a process called RNA-directed DNA methylation. By contrast, many protein-coding genes ...
Chen Li-Hua - - 2012
BACKGROUND: The reduction in diversity of the soil microbial community causes the disorder of continuous cropping. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of applying Trichoderma harzianum SQR-T037 bio-organic fertiliser (BIO) on the microbial community in continuously cropped cucumber soil. Four treatments were set: (1) control, where ...
Grošelj Uroš - - 2012
In a stereo-divergent synthesis, three novel camphor-derived bifunctional thiourea organocatalysts 7-9 have been prepared in five steps starting from (+)-camphor. In addition, borneol-derived bifunctional thiourea organocatalysts 19/19' have been prepared in three steps from (1S)-(+)-camphorquinone. Novel organocatalysts 7-9, 19/19' have been evaluated in a model reaction of Michael addition of ...
Qusous Ala - - 2012
We present three novel reproducible methodologies for the quantification of changes in actin organization from microscope images. Striation and integrative analysis were devised for the investigation of trans-cellular filaments and F-actin localization, respectively, in response to physiological or mechanical actin-modulatory conditions. Additionally, the Parker-Qusous (PQ) formula was developed as a ...
Thomas François - - 2012
Alginate constitutes a significant part of seaweed biomass and thus a crucial nutrient for numerous marine heterotrophic bacteria. However, the mechanisms for alginate assimilation remain largely unknown in marine microorganisms. We show here that the genome of the marine flavobacterium Zobellia galactanivorans contains seven putative alginate lyase genes, five of ...
Ella Elakeche - - 2012
The dopaminergic brain pathway is involved in many addictive behaviours, hence represents a good candidate in the study of smoking behaviour and nicotine addiction. Dopamine beta hydroxylase (DBH) is an enzyme that catalyses the conversion of dopamine into noradrenaline. This study, the first of its kind, was done to investigate ...
Carling Carl-Johan - - 2012
The intensity and colour of the light emitted from upconverting nanoparticles is controlled by the state of photoresponsive dithienylethene ligands decorated onto the surface of the nanoparticles. By selectively activating one or both ligands in a mixed, 3-component system, a multimodal read-out of the emitted light is achieved.
Roesch Matthew R MR Department of Psychology, University of Maryland College Park, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA. - - 2012
Normal aging has been associated with cognitive changes, including shifts in responding for time-discounted rewards. The orbitofrontal cortex, an area previously associated with aging-related cognitive changes, is critical for normal discounting. Previously we have shown in a choice task that rats prefer immediate over delayed reward and that neural representations ...
Risoldi Cochrane Zara - - 2012
The Internet has become an extremely prevalent means of communicating health information to consumers. Guidelines for selecting reliable health information websites give preference to U.S. government sites over commercially funded sites. However, these websites are not useful to consumers unless they are able to read and understand them. The authors' ...
Park Jun Seok - - 2012
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare survival rates assessed by the seventh-staging system with those by the sixth classification. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 3,377 patients who underwent surgery for colorectal adenocarcinoma from three university hospitals. The overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) rates ...
Magaldi Thomas G - - 2012
Polyomaviruses are nonenveloped viruses with capsids composed primarily of 72 pentamers of the viral VP1 protein, which forms the outer shell of the capsid and binds to cell surface oligosaccharide receptors. Highly conserved VP1 proteins from closely related polyomaviruses recognize different oligosaccharides. To determine whether amino acid changes restricted to ...
Wang Yong-Xiang - - 2012
Hepadnaviruses, including the pathogenic hepatitis B virus (HBV), replicate their small DNA genomes through protein-primed reverse transcription, mediated by the terminal protein (TP) domain in their P proteins and an RNA stem-loop, ε, on the pregenomic RNA (pgRNA). No direct structural data are available for P proteins, but their reverse ...
Reisch Nicole - - 2012
Objective: To study adrenal crisis (AC) in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to classical 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD). AC was defined as an acute state of health impairment requiring i.v. glucocorticoid administration and hospital admission.Design and Methods: In a cross-sectional study with detailed retrospective assessment AC was studied following two ...
de Lange E E Academische huisartsenpraktijk Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, Postbus 880, 9700, AW, Groningen, The Netherlands. - - 2013
The aim of this study is to provide an overview of prevalence, symptoms, risk factors and prognosis of delirium in primary care and institutionalized long-term care. The method used in this study is a systematic PubMed search and literature review. The prevalence of delirium in the population among the elderly ...
Ojosnegros Samuel - - 2012
RNA viruses exist as genetically diverse populations displaying a range of virulence degrees. The evolution of virulence in viral populations is, however, poorly understood. On the basis of the experimental observation of an RNA virus clone in cell culture diversifying into two subpopulations of different virulence, we study the dynamics ...
Schock-Kusch Daniel - - 2012
Constant infusion clearance techniques using exogenous renal markers are considered the gold standard for assessing the glomerular filtration rate. Here we describe a constant infusion clearance method in rats allowing the real-time monitoring of steady-state conditions using an automated closed-loop approach based on the transcutaneous measurement of the renal marker ...
Löfgren Monika - - 2012
Purpose:To explore and obtain increased knowledge about (i) strategies and treatments used by individuals with neuropathic pain following spinal cord injury (SCI) for handling long-term pain, and (ii) their experience, needs and expectations of SCI neuropathic pain management. Methods:Qualitative methods with an emergent research design were used. Eighteen informants who ...
Grainger Richard S - - 2012
The 6-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane ring system, prevalent in a range of biologically active molecules, is prepared through a novel semipinacol rearrangement utilizing a cyclic phosphorane or sulfite intermediate. The rearrangement proceeds with exclusive N-acyl group migration of a β-lactam ring and results in carbonyl functionality at the 7- and bridging 8-position of ...
Peters-Klimm F - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Self-care behaviour in patients with heart failure (HF) represents a series of specific actions that patients should take, as an important treatment component. AIMS: The aim of this study was to identify potential determinants of HF self-care in ambulatory patients with stable systolic HF. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study ...
Yevchak Andrea - - 2012
Delirium frequently occurs in hospitalised older adults leading to poor outcomes and frequent adverse events. Proper recognition and management of delirium by acute care nurses can minimise the effects of negative sequelae associated with delirium. This pilot study used focus group methodology to: (i) describe acute care nurse's experience and ...
Taguchi Yuki - - 2012
A slab-type optical waveguide (s_OWG)-based microfluidic SPR measurement system for bisphenol A was developed. This s_OWG possesses consecutive parallel gold and silver deposition bands in the line of plasmon flow, allowing two individual SPR signals to be independently obtained as a result of the difference in resonant reflection spectra of ...
Das Anasuya A Flaum Eye Institute, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York 14642, - - 2012
The manipulation of visual perceptual learning is emerging as an important rehabilitation tool following visual system damage. Specificity of visual learning for training stimulus and task attributes has been used in prior work to infer a differential contribution of higher-level versus lower-level visual cortical areas to this process. The present ...
Schmeisser Michael J - - 2012
Alterations of learning and memory in mice with deregulated neuron-specific nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activity support the idea that plastic changes of synaptic contacts may depend at least in part on IκB kinase (IKK)/NF-κB-related synapse-to-nucleus signaling. There is, however, little information on the molecular requirements and mechanisms regulating this IKK/NF-κB-dependent ...
Schnider Armin - - 2012
A 57-year-old man suffered severe amnesia and disorientation, accompanied by content-specific confabulation, due to an alcoholic Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. For months, he was deeply concerned about a single obligation that he thought he had to respond to, but which he had already assumed 20 years previously. This monothematic, prospective confabulation was ...
Muñoz-Reyes José Antonio - - 2012
OBJECTIVES: Recent research suggests that evolutionary selection pressures have shaped mental mechanisms to be able to assess one's own and other's physical strength, fighting ability, and aggressiveness. According to the recalibrational theory, anger may be linked to fighting ability and serve as a bargaining mechanism to improve welfare obtained in ...
Christensen Jeanette Erbo - - 2012
Interferon (IFN) regulatory factors (IRFs) are a family of transcription factors involved in regulating type I IFN genes and other genes participating in the early antiviral host response. To better understand the mechanisms involved in virus-induced central nervous system (CNS) inflammation, we studied the influence of IRF1, -3, -7, and ...
Black Lucinda J - - 2012
Food fortification is a potentially effective public health strategy to increase vitamin D intakes and circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations. We updated a previous systematic review to evaluate current evidence from randomized controlled intervention studies in community-dwelling adults of the effect of fortified foods on 25(OH)D concentrations. Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, ...
Cai Weidong - - 2012
Rapidly stopping action engages a network in the brain including the right presupplementary motor area (preSMA), the right inferior frontal gyrus, and the basal ganglia. Yet the functional role of these different regions within the overall network still remains unclear. Here we focused on the role of the right preSMA ...
Lee Whasil - - 2012
The conserved TPLH tetrapeptide motif of ankyrin repeats (ARs) plays an important role in stabilizing AR proteins, and histidine (TPLH)-to-arginine (TPLR) mutations in this motif have been associated with a hereditary human anemia, spherocytosis. Here, we used a combination of atomic force microscopy-based single-molecule force spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations ...
Sookias Roland B - - 2012
Abiotic and biological factors have been hypothesized as controlling maximum body size of tetrapods and other animals through geological time. We analyse the effects of three abiotic factors--oxygen, temperature and land area--on maximum size of Permian-Jurassic archosauromorphs and therapsids, and Cenozoic mammals, using time series generalized least-squares regression models. We ...
Vanderleyden Els - - 2012
In the current review we aim to give an overview of the state of the art of the research on (bio)polymer functionalised titanium implants for bone tissue engineering applications. After a short introduction on bone tissue engineering and the requirements the applied materials have to meet, an extensive discussion on ...
Pao Hsiang-Yin - - 2012
Cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine) is an adenosine analog isolated from Cordyceps sinensis, which is a Chinese herbal medicine known to have many benefits, including the adjustment on physical condition, the anti-cancer effect, and the enhancement on sexual performance. We have previously demonstrated that cordycepin could simultaneously activate steroidogenesis and apoptosis in MA-10 ...
Antonopoulou Athina - - 2012
Purpose: Failures of fixed partial dentures (FPDs) fabricated with fiber-reinforced composites (FRCs) have been attributed to veneering fractures. The aim of the present study was to investigate the shear bond strength and mode of failure between an indirect composite and FRC substructures. Material and Methods: SR Adoro indirect composite was ...
Cohen Michael X - - 2012
Failures to perceive visual stimuli lead to errors in decision making. Different theoretical accounts implicate either medial frontal (MF) cognitive control processes or prestimulus occipital (OC) cortical oscillatory dynamics in errors during perceptual tasks. Here, we show that these 2 previously unconnected theoretical accounts can be reconciled, and the brain ...
Lok Khoi Seng - - 2012
This paper reports a novel method for the rapid determination of vitamin B(12) concentration in a continuous-flow lab-on-a-chip system. This new method is based on luminol-peroxide chemiluminescence (CL) assays for the detection of cobalt(ii) ions in vitamin B(12) molecules. The lab-on-a-chip device consisted of two passive micromixers acting as microreactors ...
Ajeganova Sofia - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of obesity, defined as BMI≥30 or ≥28 kg/m(2) or by waist circumference (WC), on disease activity and severity as well as its relation to comorbidities in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: The study population comprised 1596 patients with early RA, mean(SD) age 55.6(14.6) years, 67.8% women, ...
Lorencio Carol - - 2012
This study assessed the accuracy of real-time continuous glucose monitoring system (RTCGMS) devices in an intensive care unit (ICU) to determine whether the septic status of the patient has any influence on the accuracy of the RTCGMS. In total, 41 patients on insulin therapy were included. Patients were monitored for ...
Paulson Ashley R - - 2012
A large protein machinery is required for 3'-end processing of mRNA precursors in eukaryotes. Cleavage factor IA (CF IA), a complex in the 3'-end processing machinery in yeast, contains four subunits, Rna14, Rna15, Clp1, and Pcf11. Rna14 has a HAT (half a TPR) domain at the N terminus and a ...
Derosa Giuseppe - - 2012
Abstract Background: This study evaluated the effect of vildagliptin + metformin on glycemic control and β-cell function in type 2 diabetes patients. Subjects and Methods: One hundred seventy-one type 2 diabetes patients, naive to antidiabetes therapy and with poor glycemic control, were instructed to take metformin for 8±2 months up ...
Sakrikar Dhananjay D Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232-8548, - - 2012
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed disorder of school-age children. Although genetic and brain-imaging studies suggest a contribution of altered dopamine (DA) signaling in ADHD, evidence of signaling perturbations contributing to risk is largely circumstantial. The presynaptic, cocaine- and amphetamine (AMPH)-sensitive DA transporter (DAT) constrains DA availability ...
Basak Onur - - 2012
The adult mammalian forebrain contains neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs) that generate neurons throughout life. As in other somatic stem cell systems, NSCs are proposed to be predominantly quiescent and proliferate only sporadically to produce more committed progeny. However, quiescence has recently been shown not to be an essential criterion for ...
White Helen E - - 2012
The structure of the bacteriophage SPP1 capsid was determined at subnanometer resolution by cryo-electron microscopy and single-particle analysis. The icosahedral capsid is composed of the major capsid protein gp13 and the auxiliary protein gp12, which are organized in a T=7 lattice. DNA is arranged in layers with a distance of ...
Heckman Michael G - - 2012
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The selection of appropriate candidates for salvage radiation therapy (SRT) to address a rising PSA following radical prostatectomy remains challenging. Herein, we provide the first evaluation of the ability of staining levels of the tumor based biomarkers MDM2, p16, and p53 to aid in prediction of biochemical ...
Neckel Helinton - - 2012
Glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) participate in central cardiovascular control, and are found in the rat posterodorsal medial amygdala (MePD), an area of the forebrain that modulates emotional/social behaviors. Here we tested whether these neurotransmitters in the MePD could change the basal activity, chemoreflex, and baroreflex cardiovascular responses in awake ...
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