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Results 301 - 350 of 2309
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Raz Assaf - - 2012
Wall-anchored surface proteins are critical for the in vivo survival of Streptococcus pyogenes. Cues in the signal sequence direct the membrane translocation of surface proteins: M protein to the septum, and SfbI to the poles. Both proteins are subsequently anchored to the wall by the membrane bound enzyme sortase A. ...
Negro Andrea - - 2012
Migraine afflicts approximately 11% of the population worldwide producing substantial disability, resulting in loss of productivity both at home and at the workplace. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is closely involved in the cascade of molecular events leading to migraine painful crisis. Acute treatment of migraine is actually based on the ...
Probst Gary - - 2012
Alzheimer's disease is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder for which no disease-modifying therapy exists. The amyloid hypothesis, which implicates Aβ as the toxin initiating a biological cascade leading to neurodegeneration, is the most prominent theory concerning the underlying cause of the disease. BACE1 is one of two aspartyl proteinases that generate ...
Satheesh Madhav Nookala Venkala - - 2012
The oral mucosa is an appropriate route for drug delivery systems, as it evades first-pass metabolism, enhances drug bioavailability and provides the means for rapid drug transport to the systematic circulation. This delivery system offers a more comfortable and convenient delivery route compared with the intravenous route. Although numerous drugs ...
Dong Dong - - 2012
Cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) are the enzymes that catalyze the sulfonation reaction, an important metabolic pathway for numerous endogenous and exogenous compounds. Human SULTs exhibit complex patterns of broad, differential and overlapping substrate selectivity. Moreover, these enzymes often display substrate inhibition kinetics (i.e., inhibition of the enzyme activity at high substrate ...
┼×enel Sevda - - 2012
There have been several advances in the delivery of drugs through the buccal mucosa over the last 5 years, which have resulted in a number of new buccal delivery products appearing on the market. This review discusses the most recent developments in the area of buccal and sublingual drug delivery, ...
Chaudhuri Prabir K PK Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Medicinal Plants Chemistry Section, PO CIMAP, Lucknow 226015, Uttar Pradesh, India. - - 2013
A new triterpenoid, 2α,24-diacetoxy-3β-hydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (1), was characterised from the rhizomes of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn by spectroscopic and chemical methods along with four known compounds, hyptatic acid-A (2α,3β,24-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid) (2), maslinic acid (2α,3β-dihydroxyoleane-12-ene-28-oic acid), betulin and lupeol.
Patel Riyaz S RS Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, - - 2012
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified novel variants associated with myocardial infarction (MI) in Caucasians. We hypothesized that those variants whose mechanism of risk is currently unknown, confer risk via pathways mediating arterial wave reflections which is an increasingly recognized risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at eight ...
Chhatriwala Mariya K MK Wellcome Trust Centre for Stem Cell Research, Cambridge University, Cambridge, - - 2012
Kazrin binds to periplakin and ARVCF catenin, and regulates adhesion and differentiation of cultured human keratinocytes. To explore kazrin function in vivo, we generated a kazrin gene-trap mouse in which only exons 1-4 were expressed, fused to β-galactosidase. On transient transfection, the protein encoded by exons 1-4 did not enter ...
Perdue Katherine L KL Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH, USA. - - 2012
We quantify the variability in diffuse optical tomography (DOT) sensitivity over the cortical surface in eight young adult subjects. We use the 10/5 electroencephalography system as a basis for our whole-head optical high-density probe design. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) is calculated along with the percentage of the cortex that is ...
Morrissey Mark D - - 2012
Anatomical connectivity and single neuron coding suggest a segregation of information representation within lateral (LEC) and medial (MEC) portions of the entorhinal cortex, a brain region serving as the primary input/output of the hippocampus and maintaining widespread connections to many association cortices. The present study aimed to expand this idea ...
Tlahuice Alfredo - - 2012
We report results of a theoretical study, based on density functional theory (DFT), on the structural, electronic, optical, and chiroptical properties of small thiolated gold clusters, [Au(n)(SR)(m) (n = 12-15, 16-20; m = 9-12, 12-16)]. Some of these clusters correspond to those recently synthesized with the surfactant-free method. To study ...
Pedersen N C - - 2012
The degree of heterogeneity associated with geographic origin and sebaceous adenitis (SA) status in Standard Poodles from the United States (US) and the United Kingdom (UK) was assessed. Healthy and SA-affected Standard Poodles from the US and the UK shared a major mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype and a single Y ...
Casas Lidia - - 2012
Previous studies have found inconsistent results on the association between asthma in children and gas cooking emissions. We aimed to assess the effects of the long term exposure to gas cooking on the onset of asthma and respiratory symptoms, focusing on wheezing, in children from two German birth cohorts: LISAplus ...
Bernal Axel - - 2012
MOTIVATION: Gene-model curation creates consensus gene models by combining multiple sources of protein-coding evidence that may be incomplete or inconsistent. To date, manual curation still produces the highest quality models. However, manual curation is too slow and costly to be completed even for the most important organisms. In recent years, ...
Huang Gaoshan - - 2012
Conventional solid films on certain substrates play a crucial role in various applications, for example in flat panel displays, silicon technology, and protective coatings. Recently, tremendous attention has been directed toward the thinning and shaping of solids into so-called nanomembranes, offering a unique and fantastic platform for research in nanoscience ...
Sumi Takenori - - 2012
Direct evidence: The existence of methoxy radical species formed during an anodic oxidation in MeOH on a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode was confirmed by ESR spectroscopy. Effective production of a neolignan, licarin A, was accomplished by the BDD-mediated anodic oxidation protocol.
Sisman Turgay - - 2012
Single-cell protein (SCP) refers to the dried cells of microorganisms. The aim of this research was to evaluate the nutrional characteristics and possible toxic effects of the SCP of Trichoderma harzianum. First, T. harzianum was grown on whey filtrate agar medium and the obtained SCP was analysed. It was rich ...
Huang L - - 2012
Elevation in atmospheric CO(2) concentration broadly affects plant phenology and physiology, and these effects may alter the performance of plant viruses. The effects of elevated CO(2) on the susceptibility of tomato plants to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) were examined for two successive years in open top chambers (OTC) ...
Ratajczak-Wielgomas Katarzyna - - 2012
To investigate the mechanisms underlying matrix deposition in Dupuytren's disease, the expression of gelatinase A (MMP-2), the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) and decorin (DCN) was studied. The level of relative MMP-2 activation was investigated using zymography. The mRNA expression of MMP-2, TIMP-2, TGF-β1 ...
Chang Wei-Shun - - 2012
A surface plasmon is the coherent oscillation of the conduction band electrons. When a metal nanoparticle is excited to produce surface plasmons, incident light is both scattered and absorbed, giving rise to brilliant colors. One available technique for measuring these processes, ensemble extinction spectroscopy, only measures the sum of scattering ...
Chen Yuncong - - 2012
A novel sensitive and specific Hg(2+) chemodosimeter, derived from 1',3'-dithiane-substituted 2,1,3-benzoxadiazole, displays "turn-on" fluorescent and colorimetric responses via an Hg(2+)-triggered aldehyde recovery reaction. Its potential to monitor Hg(2+) in living organisms has been demonstrated using zebrafish larvae.
Sommer Felix - - 2012
Adaptive immune systems are present only in vertebrates. How do all the remaining animals withstand continuous attacks of permanently evolving pathogens? Even in the absence of adaptive immunity every organism must be able to unambiguously distinguish "self" cells from any imaginable "non-self". Here, we analysed the function of highly polymorphic ...
Aggarwal Vivek - - 2012
Purpose: During dowel space preparation, the instrumentation forms a thick smear layer along with sealer-occluded dentinal tubules. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different obturating materials on push-out bond strength of a fiber dowel. Materials and Methods: Fifty human uniradicular teeth were decoronated and prepared ...
Lukasik-Shreepaathy Ewa - - 2012
Plant resistance (R) proteins mediate race-specific immunity and initiate host defenses that are often accompanied by a localized cell-death response. Most R proteins belong to the NB-LRR protein family as they carry a central NB-ARC domain fused to an LRR domain. The CC domain at the N-terminus of some Solanaceous ...
Weible Aldis P - - 2012
Damage to the hippocampal formation results in a profound temporally graded retrograde amnesia, implying that it is necessary for memory acquisition but not its long-term storage. It is therefore thought that memories are transferred from the hippocampus to the cortex for long-term storage in a process called systems consolidation (Dudai ...
Caso F - - 2012
We describe two cases, both presenting with a 2-year history of isolated language disorders, one compatible with logopenic variant and the other with non-fluent variant of primary progressive aphasia (PPA). Afterwards, each developed a corticobasal syndrome (CBS) with alien limb phenomenon and a multi-domain cognitive impairment. Regional cerebral perfusion (rCBF) ...
Goswami Ruma - - 2012
Somatosensory afferents are represented within the cortical autonomic network (CAN). However, the representation of somatosensory afferents, and the consequent cardiovascular effects, may be modified by levels of baroreceptor input. Thus, we examined the cortical regions involved with processing somatosensory inputs during baroreceptor unloading. Neuroimaging sessions [functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)] ...
Jost Timothy Stoltzfus - - 2012
Although the media and the U.S. public focused primarily on the minimum-coverage requirement, or individual mandate, during the recent oral arguments in the challenges to the Affordable Care Act (ACA) before the Supreme Court, the most important issue before the Court may well be the constitutionality of the ACA's Medicaid ...
Peng Xu - - 2012
Abstract There is a lack of epidemiological data on Toxoplasma gondii infection in chickens in China. In the present study, serum samples from 160 free-range chickens and 450 caged chickens collected from Jinzhou, northeastern China, and detected T. gondii antibodies by a modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies to T. gondii ...
Fuster Valentin - - 2012
The decision to use antithrombotics for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF) requires assessment of an individual patient's risk of stroke balanced with their likelihood of bleeding on treatment. United States (U.S.) practice guidelines have recommended the use of the CHADS(2) score (graded from 0 to 6 according to presence ...
Spandagos Constantinos - - 2012
The spreading of surfactants on gel layers has been found to be accompanied by an intriguing instability which involves the formation of crack-like patterns on the surface of the gel. In an attempt to extend the findings on the spreading on agar gels presented in Part 1, this paper examines ...
Bergboer J G M - - 2012
Background:  Recent genome-wide association studies have identified several genetic risk factors for psoriasis, but data on their association with age of onset are lacking. Objective:  The goal of this study was to compare the association between known risk alleles and psoriasis in well-defined cohorts of paediatric and adult onset psoriasis. ...
Pejin Boris - - 2012
The phytochemical investigation conducted on a foliose lichen, Lobaria pulmonaria(L.) Hoffm. (Lobariaceae), led to the isolation of a new depsidone in the form of its diacetate derivative which showed a moderate acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity (1 µg) in vitro. This is the first record of identified depsidone structure in searching for ...
Jones H G - - 2012
Winter chilling is critical for flowering and fruiting of many temperate fruits, with evidence that blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) cropping has been adversely affected by warm winters. Accurate models of chill accumulation in blackcurrant are required so that breeding strategies can be formulated for the generation of new cultivars with ...
Skovránková Jitka - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Persistence of humoral immunity was evaluated in 82 hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients up to 12.5 years after post-transplant immunization against tetanus and diphtheria. PROCEDURE: New immunization, initiated at least 12 months after transplantation, consisted of an average three-dose schedule of vaccine administration on day 1, month 3, and ...
Lerch Matthias - - 2012
In total hip arthroplasty (THA), short stemmed cementless implants are used because they are thought to stimulate physiological bone remodeling and reduce stress shielding. We performed a numerical investigation on bone remodeling after implantation of a specific short stemmed implant using finite element analysis (FEA). Overall bone mass loss was ...
Rakers Florian - - 2012
Prenatal maternal stress (PMS) programs dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) in postnatal life, though time periods vulnerable to PMS are still unclear. We evaluated in pregnant sheep the effect of PMS during early gestation (30 - 100 days, dGA; term is 150 dGA) or late gestation (100-120 dGA) on ...
Hu Jia - - 2012
Establishment of proper connectivity between peripheral sensory neurons and their central targets is required for an animal to sense and respond to various external stimuli. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons convey sensory signals of different modalities via their axon projections to distinct laminae in the dorsal horn of the spinal ...
Issa Fadi A - - 2012
The social rank of an animal is distinguished by its behavior relative to others in its community. Although social-status-dependent differences in behavior must arise because of differences in neural function, status-dependent differences in the underlying neural circuitry have only begun to be described. We report that dominant and subordinate crayfish ...
Drummond Eleanor S - - 2012
Age-related depletion of estrogens and androgens is associated with an increase in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain pathology and diminished cognitive function. Here we investigated AD-associated molecular and cellular changes in brains of aged hypogonadal (hpg) male and female mice. hpg Mice have a spontaneous, inactivating genetic mutation in the GnRH ...
Pugh Nicole E - - 2012
The Reassurance Questionnaire (RQ; Speckens, Spinhoven, Van Hemert, & Bolk, ( 2000 ) is a self-report measure designed to assess the extent to which patients feel reassured by their attending physicians. While the original RQ was validated in Dutch, the invariance of the factor structure has not been examined in ...
Lian Hong-Yuan - - 2012
Highly biocompatible coordination polymer (Prussian Blue) nanoparticles (LC(50) > 1000 μg mL(-1)) with a hollow interior and a microporous framework (denoted as HPB) are utilized as an anticancer drug (i.e. cisplatin) capsule for chemotherapy of bladder cancer T24 cells.
Moran Carlos M - - 2012
The cellular mechanisms regulating branching and growth of the intersegmental vessels (ISVs) are not well understood. We have carried out studies demonstrating that Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is a major regulator of intersomitic vessel growth. Inhibition of Hh activity by cyclopamine completely blocks formation of intersomitic vessels in the avian embryo. ...
Gómez-Caravaca Ana Maria - - 2012
Quinoa is a pseudocereal from South America that is increasing in interest around the world because it is a good source of different nutrients and rich in antioxidant compounds. Thus, this study has focused on the effects of different agronomic variables, such as irrigation and salinity, on the phenolic and ...
Girones J - - 2012
In recent years, bone tissue engineering has emerged as one of the main research areas in the field of regenerative biomedicine. Frequency and relevance age-related problems, such as healing and regeneration of bone tissues, are rising due to increasing life expectancy. Even though bone tissue has excellent self-regeneration ability, when ...
Ustarroz-Cano M - - 2012
Vanadium (V) is a transition metal found in air adsorbed onto suspended particles. As a result, urban populations are often exposed to this element as a constituent of particulate matter (PM). One aspect of the myriad toxicities that might arise from these exposures is altered immune responses. Previous reports from ...
Friberg Leif - - 2012
Known risk factors for bleeding during anticoagulant treatment are largely the same as those predicting thromboembolic events in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Our objective was to investigate how to maximize the likelihood of avoiding both stroke and bleeding. All 182 678 subjects with atrial fibrillation in the Swedish Hospital ...
Barbero Margherita - - 2012
An initial study has been accomplished into the synthetic feasibility of the preparation of diarylcarbenium salt via the direct coupling of aryl (or heteroaryl) aldehydes and arenes (or heteroaryl analogues) in the presence of a strong organic Brønsted acid. A number of stabilized aryl or heteroaryl(3-indolyl)carbenium ions, never previously prepared ...
Waldron Nicola - - 2012
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore the patient's perception of receiving a diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus) and reports on their experience of the period between onset of symptoms and receiving a definitive diagnosis. METHODS: Focus groups were conducted in seven rheumatology centres. Forty-three participants were ...
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