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Miller D - - 2012
Introduction:  Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) has revolutionised the management of hypercapnic exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We wished to evaluate factors related to its overall success in the 'real-life' setting. Methods:  A retrospective analysis of patients receiving NIV for a hypercapnic exacerbation of COPD was performed. Demographics, laboratory data, ...
Evans Mary E - - 2012
  The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the barriers and facilitators to implementation of the five overarching recommendations of the Institute of Medicine report and to consider the implications for nursing.   Data were collected through use of a semi-structured interview of purposive sample of ...
Slattery Martha L - - 2012
The transforming growth factor-β-signaling pathway has been identified as being involved in colorectal cancer. The aim of this study was to determine how diet and lifestyle factors in combination with genetic variation in the transforming growth factor-β-signaling pathway alters colorectal cancer risk. We used data from 2 population-based case-control studies. ...
Johnson J A JA College of Pharmacy and Center for Pharmacogenomics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA. - - 2012
The CYP2C19*2 loss-of-function allele is associated with reduced generation of active metabolites of clopidogrel. However, meta-analyses have supported or discounted the impact of genotype on adverse cardiovascular outcomes during clopidogrel therapy, depending on studies included in the analysis. Here we review these data and conclude that evidence supports a differential ...
Semerci Oguz - - 2012
Dual-energy computerized tomography has gained great interest because of its ability to characterize the chemical composition of a material rather than simply providing relative attenuation images as in conventional tomography. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a novel polychromatic dual-energy processing algorithm, with an emphasis on detection and ...
Abbas Maher A - - 2012
: The aim of this study was to evaluate the short- and long-term outcome of the radiofrequency treatment for moderate to severe fecal incontinence. : This study is a retrospective review of a single-institution experience. : Patients who underwent the radiofrequency procedure were included. : The primary outcomes measured were ...
Tanner Sharon J - - 2012
This ongoing column provides information on accreditation for nursing programs of all types by the National League for Nursing Accrediting Commission (NLNAC). Readers may submit questions to me at NLNAC. General questions of interest to a wide audience are addressed here; those with more specific questions or those requiring confidentiality ...
Batailler M - - 2012
GPR50, formerly known as melatonin-related receptor, is one of three subtypes of the melatonin receptor subfamily, together with the MT(1) and MT(2) receptors. By contrast to these two high-affinity receptor subtypes and despite its high identity with the melatonin receptor family, GPR50 does not bind melatonin or any other known ...
Chakraborty Moumita - - 2012
Colloidal dispersions of silver bromide (AgBr) in aqueous surfactant medium have been prepared using a surfactant-assisted synthesis approach with hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The surfactant acts both as source of bromide ion as well as the stabilizing agent. Upon progressive addition of silver nitrate to aqueous CTAB solution, stable AgBr dispersions ...
Wang Min - - 2012
Novel water-soluble decacationically armed C(60) and C(70) decaiodide monoadducts, C(60)- and C(70)[>M(C(3)N(6)(+)C(3))(2)], were synthesized, characterized, and applied as photosensitizers and potential nano-PDT agents against pathogenic bacteria and cancer cells. A high number of cationic charges per fullerene cage and H-bonding moieties were designed for rapid binding to the anionic residues ...
Borysik Antoni J AJ Chemistry Research Laboratory, University of Oxford, 12 Mansfield Road, OX1 3TA Oxford, United - - 2012
Growing interest in micelles to protect membrane complexes during the transition from solution to gas phase prompts a better understanding of their properties. We have used ion mobility mass spectrometry to separate and assign detergent clusters formed from the n-trimethylammonium bromide series of detergents. We show that cluster size is ...
Keefe Andrew J - - 2012
Poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) is extensively used for biomedical applications due to its low cost, ease of fabrication, high durability and flexibility, oxygen permeability, and self-healing properties. PDMS, however, has some significant drawbacks. PDMS endures unacceptably high levels of nonspecific protein fouling when used with biological samples due to its superhydrophobic ...
Yang Xianbin X AM Biotechnologies LLC, Houston, Texas 77034, United States. - - 2012
Chemically synthesized small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have been widely used to identify gene function and hold great potential in providing a new class of therapeutics. Chemical modifications are desired for therapeutic applications to improve siRNA efficacy. Appropriately protected ribonucleoside-3'-yl S-[β-(benzoylmercapto)ethyl]pyrrolidino-thiophosphoramidite monomers were prepared for the synthesis of siRNA containing phosphorodithioate ...
Xu Yu-Dong - - 2012
S100A8, an important member of the S100 protein family, is a low-molecular-weight (10.8 kDa) calcium-binding protein containing conserved EF-hand structural motifs. Previous studies have shown that the biological function of S100A8 protein is associated with a variety of inflammatory diseases, for example asthma. S100A8 protein plays important roles in the ...
Yue Wen - - 2012
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress occurs in macrophage-rich areas of advanced atherosclerotic lesions and contributes to macrophage apoptosis and subsequent plaque necrosis. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) on ER stress-induced apoptosis in cultured macrophages and the underlying mechanisms. RAW264.7 cells were incubated ...
Zhang Huan-Huan - - 2012
To investigate the effects of novel intravenous general anesthetic propofol on membrane electrophysiological characteristics and action potential (AP) of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) neurons and possible ionic mechanisms, intracellular recordings were conducted in SON neurons from the coronal hypothalamic slice preparation of adult male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. The results ...
Zheng Chao - - 2012
Descending activation pathways in spinal cord are essential for inducing and modulating autokinesis, but whether the effects of general anesthetic agents on the descending pathways are involved in initiation of skeletal muscle relaxation or not, as well as the underlying mechanisms on excitatory amino acid receptors still remain unclear. In ...
Cheng Jun - - 2012
The aim of the present study was to study the effect of β-estradiol (β-E(2)) on the large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium (BK(Ca)) channel in mesenteric artery smooth muscle cells (SMCs). The mesenteric arteries were obtained from post-menopause female patients with abdominal surgery, and the SMCs were isolated from the arteries using an ...
Zhu Rui-Juan - - 2012
To explore the adaptive mechanisms of plateau zokor (Myospalax baileyi) to the enduring digging activity in the hypoxic environment and of plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) to the sprint running activity, the functional differences of malate-aspartate shuttle system (MA) in liver of plateau zokor and plateau pika were studied. The ratio ...
Wang Li-Na - - 2012
The present study was to investigate the effects of diltiazem, a ghrelin receptor agonist, on food intake and gastrointestinal functions in rats. Rats were intragastrically administered with diltiazem solution (daily 16 mg/kg, 30 mg/kg or 80 mg/kg, 30 d), and the rats with saline as control. To detect the effects ...
Gao Fang - - 2012
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the active and passive mechanical properties and wall collagen and elastin contents of mesenteric small arteries (MSAs) isolated from rats of 28-day simulated microgravity (SUS), countermeasure [S + D: SUS plus 1 h/d -G(x) to simulate intermittent artificial gravity (IAG)] and ...
Wu Xiao-Jie - - 2012
Repeated exposure to morphine leads to the addiction, which influences its clinical application seriously. The glutamatergic projection from prefrontal cortex (PFC) to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays an important role in rewarding effects. It is still unknown whether morphine exposure changes PFC-NAc synaptic transmission. To address this question, in vivo ...
Lu Ning - - 2012
Central urotensin II (UII) may participate in the regulation of cardiovascular functions by stimulating sympathy pathway. However, the central mechanism remained unknown. Recent studies have shown that brain reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate the sympatho-excitatory effects. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that ROS mediate central cardiovascular effects ...
Ma Xing - - 2012
The aim of the present study was to investigate the involvements of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and estrogen receptor α (ERα) in the inhibitory effect of wogonin on the breast adenocarcinoma growth. Moreover, the effect of wogonin on the angiogenesis of chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) was also investigated. MCF-7 cells ...
Tao Bei-Bei - - 2012
The purpose of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms whereby hydrogen sulfide (H2S) exerts the promoting effect on vascular endothelial cells migration. We used wound healing assay to study the effect of NaHS (H2S donor) on the migration ability of rhesus retinal pigment epithelial cell line, RF/6A cells, ...
Hao Li-Na - - 2012
The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effect of puerarin on retina pigment epithelial (RPE) cells of diabetic rats against apoptosis. One hundred and eight Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: control group, streptozotocin (STZ) group and puerarin group. STZ and puerarin groups received ...
Yang Tao - - 2012
The present study was aimed to explore the changes of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK) level in skeletal muscle after exposure to acute hypobaric hypoxia and exhaustive exercise. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into sea level and high altitude groups. The rats in high altitude group were ...
Niu Chun-Yu - - 2012
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether protein kinase C (PKC) was involved in the effect of mesenteric lymph duct ligation or mesenteric lymph drainage on vascular calcium sensitivity in hemorrhagic shock rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into Sham, Shock (hemorrhagic shock), Shock+Ligation (mesenteric lymph ...
Qiu Xiao-Xiao - - 2012
The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) on pneumocyte apoptosis and apoptosis-related protein, as well as c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in lung ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Thirty Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group, I/R group and PNS group. The unilateral ...
Yu Qi - - 2012
The axon guidance molecule Slit is a secreted glucoprotein which is conserved during evolution. Slit has been implicated in regulating a variety of life activities, such as axon guidance, neuronal migration, neuronal morphological differentiation, tumor metastasis, angiogenesis and heart morphogenesis. Slit function mainly depends on the binding of its LRR-2 ...
Yang Jia-Jia - - 2012
In recent years there have been more widely and deeply studies in investigating melamine toxicity. Generally, it is believed that the main target of melamine is the urinary system. However, previous studies revealed that it also had additional biological actions. Obviously, the toxicity mechanisms of melamine have not been fully ...
Piazzon Alessandro A National Institute for Food and Nutrition Research, Via Ardeatina 546, 00178, Rome, - - 2012
Aminoethylcysteine ketimine decarboxylated dimer (AECK-DD) is a natural compound with antioxidant properties of a new family of sulfur-containing amino acids. It has been detected in human urine and plasma, in mammalian cerebellum, and in dietary vegetables. In this study, we first demonstrate the absorption of AECK-DD in mice from AECK-DD-supplemented ...
Liang Jiajie - - 2012
Although widely investigated, novel electromechanical actuators with high overall actuation performance are still in urgent need for various practical and scientific applications, such as robots, prosthetic devices, sensor switches, and sonar projectors. In this work, combining the properties of unique environmental perturbations-actuated deformational isomerization of polydiacetylene (PDA) and the outstanding ...
Commet Alan - - 2012
Hydroxide ion inhibits Photosystem II (PSII) activity by extracting Cl(-) from its binding site in the O(2)-evolving complex (OEC) under continuous illumination [Critchley, C., et al. (1982) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 682, 436]. The experiments reported here examine whether two subunits of PsbO, the manganese-stabilizing protein, bound to eukaryotic PSII play ...
- - 2012
Oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) has a causal role in nearly all cervical cancers and in many vulvar, vaginal, penile, anal, and oropharyngeal cancers. Most HPV infections clear within 1-2 years, but those that persist can progress to precancer or cancer. In the United States, public health prevention of cervical cancer ...
- - 2012
Background: Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death in the United States for persons aged 1-19 years and the fifth leading cause of death for newborns and infants aged <1 year. This report describes 10-year trends in unintentional injury deaths among persons aged 0-19 years. Methods: CDC analyzed 2000-2009 ...
- - 2012
In late December 2011, the Department of Epidemiology at Beaumont Health System (BHS) in Royal Oak, Michigan, noted an increase in the number of positive respiratory cultures in one surgical intensive-care unit (ICU), prompting further investigation. The increase in positive cultures was attributed entirely to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Investigation by BHS ...
- - 2012
In 2000, the United States achieved measles elimination (defined as interruption of year-round endemic measles transmission). However, importations of measles into the United States continue to occur, posing risks for measles outbreaks and sustained measles transmission. During 2011, a total of 222 measles cases (incidence rate: 0.7 per 1 million ...
- - 2012
In January 2012, polio eradication was declared a "programmatic emergency for global public health" by the Executive Board of the World Health Organization (WHO). Since the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) began in 1988, progress has been tracked by surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases and testing of linked ...
- - 2012
CDC is collaborating with 22 state health departments in an ongoing investigation of an outbreak of human Salmonella I 4,[5],12:i:- infections associated with exposure to rodents sold as food for pet reptiles and amphibians (i.e., feeder rodents). This outbreak strain also was implicated in a 2009 outbreak in the United ...
Mead-Hunter Ryan - - 2012
The well-known phenomena of Plateau-Rayleigh instability has been simulated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The breakup of a liquid film into an array of droplets on a cylindrical element was simulated using a volume-of-fluid (VOF) solver and compared to experimental observations and existing theory. It is demonstrated that the VOF ...
Wang Honglei - - 2012
Background: Disorders of mineral metabolism can facilitate the progression of vascular calcification and are closely associated with adverse outcomes in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). miR-15b has been implicated in the epigenetic regulation of key metabolism, stress response, and osteoblast differentiation. Methods and results: In this study, we detected miR-15b in ...
Moreau Jennifer L - - 2012
Half of all dental restorations fail within 10 years, with secondary caries and restoration fracture being the main reasons. Calcium phosphate (CaP) composites can release Ca and PO(4) ions and remineralize tooth lesions. However, there has been no report on their long-term mechanical durability. The objective of this study was ...
Lucassen Eliane A - - 2012
The neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is critical for the proper functioning of the neural circuit that generates circadian rhythms. Mice lacking VIP show profound deficits in the ability to generate many behavioral and physiological rhythms. To explore how the loss of VIP impacts on the intact circadian system, we ...
Settels Volker - - 2012
Aggregates of functionalized polycyclic aromatic molecules like perylene derivatives differ in important optoelectronic properties such as absorption and emission spectra or exciton diffusion lengths. Although those differences are well known, it is not fully understood if they are caused by variations in the geometrical orientation of the molecules within the ...
Madlala Hlengiwe P - - 2012
Studies indicate that Syzygium spp-derived oleanolic acid (OA) enhances renal function of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats as evidenced by its reversal of the previously reported inability of the kidney to excrete Na(+) in these animals. We postulated that OA influences Na(+) excretion in the proximal tubule, the site where two-thirds ...
Coad Bryan Robert - - 2012
We describe a method for grafting PEG-based polymer chains of variable surface density using a substrate independent approach, allowing grafting from virtually any material substrate. The approach relies upon initial coupling of a macro-initiator to plasma polymer treated surfaces. The macro-initiator is a novel random terpolymer containing ATRP initiator residues, ...
Berge Terje - - 2012
Free-living microalgae from the dinoflagellate genus Karlodinium are known to form massive blooms in eutrophic coastal waters worldwide and are often associated with fish kills. Natural bloom populations, recently shown to consist of the two mixotrophic and toxic species Karlodinium armiger and Karlodinium veneficum have caused fast paralysis and mortality ...
Kok Daniela - - 2012
The aim of this study was to evaluate the penetration of endodontic sealer into the dentin tubules, the integrity of the sealer layer perimeter, and the sealer area at the apical third after different filling techniques by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Forty-five mandibular premolars were mechanically prepared with ProTaper ...
Luo Chunhua - - 2012
A chiral sulfonamide primary amine-organocatalysed, highly enantioselective Michael addition of malonates to enones has been developed. This reaction afforded the corresponding products in excellent yields (up to 99%) and excellent enantioselectivity (up to 99% ee).
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