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Tissir Fadel - - 2012
The primary cilium, a signal transduction organelle, is present on the cell bodies of adult-born dentate gyrus granule cells as they begin maturation. In its absence, their maturation and integration are impaired.
Jiang Yuanyuan - - 2012
Ag nanowires are prepared as templates by a polyol reduction process. Then Ag nanotubes coated with a thin layer of Pd are synthesized through sequential reduction accompanied with the galvanic displacement reaction. The products show a hollow core-shell nanotubular structure, as demonstrated by detailed characterizations. The Ag@Pd can significantly improve ...
Sandstedt Joakim - - 2012
Cardiac "side population" (SP) cells have previously been found to differentiate into both endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes in mice and rats, but there are no data on SP cells in the human adult heart. Therefore, human cardiac atrial biopsies were dissociated, stained for SP cells and analyzed with FACS. Identified ...
Pearson John - - 2012
How do we make decisions? A study uses MEG to provide the spatial as well as the temporal resolution needed to answer this question, together with computational modeling, which allows for complex non-linear decision models. This work helps resolve some of the seemingly contradictory results from previous work.
Pauluis Olivier - - 2012
A substantial amount of frictional dissipation in the atmosphere occurs in the microphysical shear zones surrounding falling precipitation. The dissipation rate is computed here from recently available satellite retrieval from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Missions and is found to average 1.8 watts per square meter between 30°S and 30°N. The ...
Beaudry A L - - 2012
A new growth technique for indium tin oxide nanowhiskers with increased control over feature size and spacing is reported. The technique is based on a unique combination of self-catalysed vapour-liquid-solid (VLS) growth and glancing angle deposition (GLAD). This VLS-GLAD technique provides enhanced control over nanowhisker morphology as the effect of ...
Fernández-Pacheco A - - 2012
Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) and magnetoresistance (MR) measurements are used to investigate the magnetic behavior of a nanoconstriction joining two micrometric electrodes (a pad and a wire). The reversal of the magnetization under variable external static magnetic fields is imaged. By means of a detailed analysis of the STXM ...
Rupp Stefan - - 2012
Recent studies suggest that the mammalian heart possesses some capacity for cardiac regeneration. This regenerative capacity is primarily documented postnatally and after myocardial infarction or pressure overload. Although the cell type that mediates endogenous regeneration is unclear, cardiac stem cells might be considered as potential candidates. To determine the number ...
Qian Pengfei - - 2012
Ever since its inception, a popular DNA motif called the cross tile has been recognized to self-assemble into addressable 2D templates consisting of periodic square cavities. Although this may be conceptually correct, in reality certain types of cross tiles can only form planar lattices if adjacent tiles are designed to ...
Secord Ross - - 2012
Body size plays a critical role in mammalian ecology and physiology. Previous research has shown that many mammals became smaller during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), but the timing and magnitude of that change relative to climate change have been unclear. A high-resolution record of continental climate and equid body ...
Pocock Michael J O - - 2012
Understanding species' interactions and the robustness of interaction networks to species loss is essential to understand the effects of species' declines and extinctions. In most studies, different types of networks (such as food webs, parasitoid webs, seed dispersal networks, and pollination networks) have been studied separately. We sampled such multiple ...
Palmer Lucy M - - 2012
Interhemispheric inhibition is thought to mediate cortical rivalry between the two hemispheres through callosal input. The long-lasting form of this inhibition is believed to operate via γ-aminobutyric acid type B (GABA(B)) receptors, but the process is poorly understood at the cellular level. We found that the firing of layer 5 ...
Treacy M M J - - 2012
It is widely believed that the continuous random network (CRN) model represents the structural topology of amorphous silicon. The key evidence is that the model can reproduce well experimental reduced density functions (RDFs) obtained by diffraction. By using a combination of electron diffraction and fluctuation electron microscopy (FEM) variance data ...
Loehlin David W - - 2012
The genetic changes responsible for morphological differences between species are largely unidentified. Such changes can involve modifications of growth that are relevant to understanding evolution, development, and disease. We identified a gene that induces male-specific wing size and shape differences between Nasonia wasp species. Fine-scale mapping and in situ hybridization ...
Medzhitov Ruslan - - 2012
The immune system protects from infections primarily by detecting and eliminating the invading pathogens; however, the host organism can also protect itself from infectious diseases by reducing the negative impact of infections on host fitness. This ability to tolerate a pathogen's presence is a distinct host defense strategy, which has ...
Blum Elyse S ES Laboratory of Developmental Genetics, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, - - 2012
Death is a vital developmental cell fate. In Caenorhabditis elegans, programmed death of the linker cell, which leads gonadal elongation, proceeds independently of caspases and apoptotic effectors. To identify genes promoting linker-cell death, we performed a genome-wide RNA interference screen. We show that linker-cell death requires the gene pqn-41, encoding ...
Chung Hoi Sung HS Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD 20892-0520, USA. - - 2012
The transition path is the tiny fraction of an equilibrium molecular trajectory when a transition occurs as the free-energy barrier between two states is crossed. It is a single-molecule property that contains all the mechanistic information on how a process occurs. As a step toward observing transition paths in protein ...
Oren Iris I University College London Institute of Neurology, London, - - 2012
A synthesis of opto- and pharmacogenetics is beginning to reveal how various interneuron types direct incoming traffic in the hippocampus to help create a map of the environment.
Arwert Esther N EN Cancer Research UK Cambridge Research Institute, Li Ka Shing Centre, Robinson Way, Cambridge CB2 ORE, - - 2012
It is well established that tissue repair depends on stem cells and that chronic wounds predispose to tumour formation. However, the association between stem cells, wound healing and cancer is poorly understood. Lineage tracing has now shown how stem cells are mobilized to repair skin wounds and how they contribute ...
Gu Shenyan S Center for Neuroscience, Aging and Stem Cell Research, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, - - 2012
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are highly poisonous substances that are also effective medicines. Accidental BoNT poisoning often occurs through ingestion of Clostridium botulinum-contaminated food. Here, we present the crystal structure of a BoNT in complex with a clostridial nontoxic nonhemagglutinin (NTNHA) protein at 2.7 angstroms. Biochemical and functional studies show that ...
Schmitz Anja - - 2012
The threat of predictable and unpredictable aversive events was developed to assess short-duration (fear) and long-duration (anxiety) aversive states in humans. A typical experiment consists of three conditions: a safe condition (neutral (N)), during which participants are safe from aversive stimuli, and two threat conditions-one in which aversive events are ...
Hsu Lewis L LL University of Illinois, - - 2012
Hydroxyurea treatment of sickle cell mice improved their survival from pneumococcal pneumonia, counteracting the abnormally elevated inflammatory response and reducing invasion of bacteria into the bloodstream, through down regulation of E-selectin.
Roberts K - - 2012
We identify a set of multidimensional potential energy surfaces sufficiently complex to cause both the classical parallel tempering and the guided or unguided diffusion Monte Carlo methods to converge too inefficiently for practical applications. The mathematical model is constructed as a linear combination of decoupled Double Wells [(DDW)(n)]. We show ...
Gubbels Koos B - - 2012
We theoretically study slow collisions of NH(3) molecules with He atoms, where we focus in particular on the observation of scattering resonances. We calculate state-to-state integral and differential cross sections for collision energies ranging from 10(-4) cm(-1) to 130 cm(-1), using fully converged quantum close-coupling calculations. To describe the interaction ...
Pronobis Mira I - - 2012
Wnt signaling regulates virtually every cell fate decision during development. How can the same signal trigger such diverse events? Engaging different transcriptional machinery via different protein interfaces on the transcriptional co-activator β-catenin provides part of the answer.
Stoll Hermann - - 2012
Finite-cluster calculations employing high-level wavefunction-based ab initio methods and extended atomic-orbital basis sets are used to determine local energy increments for bulk LiH. It is shown that these increments can be converged with respect to cluster size and point-charge embedding so as to yield bulk cohesive energies with an accuracy ...
Dodziuk H - - 2012
Electronic absorption and magnetic circular dichroism were recorded for five cyclophanes with ethano bridges: [2.2]paracyclophane, (1,2,4)[2.2.2]cyclophane, (1,2,4;1,2,5)[2.2.2]cyclophane, (1,2,3,4,5,6)(1,2,3,4,5,6)cyclophane, and trans-[2.2]metacyclophane. Spectral and structural analyses were based on geometry optimization and calculations of transition energies, carried out using density functional theory methods. The assignments have been proposed for several electronic transitions ...
Ghassemi Hessam M - - 2012
The electrical properties of boron nitride (BN) nanostructures, particularly BN nanotubes (NTs), have been studied less in comparison to the counterpart carbon nanotubes. The present work investigates the field emission (FE) behavior of BNNTs under multiple cycles of FE experiments and demonstrates a strain-engineering pathway to tune the electronic properties ...
Labet Vanessa - - 2012
In this paper, we examine the transition from a molecular to monatomic solid in hydrogen over a wide pressure range. This is achieved by setting up two models in which a single parameter δ allows the evolution from a molecular structure to a monatomic one of high coordination. Both models ...
Labet Vanessa - - 2012
In order to explain the intricate dance of intramolecular (intra-proton-pair) H-H separations observed in a numerical laboratory of calculationally preferred static hydrogen structures under pressure, we examine two effects through discrete molecular models. The first effect, we call it physical, is of simple confinement. We review a salient model already ...
Temple S E - - 2012
For animals that can see it, the polarisation of light adds another dimension to vision, analogous to adding colour to a black and white image [1,2]. Whilst some animals use the orientation of the electric field vector (e-vector) for navigation and orientation [3], the ability to discriminate angular differences in ...
Shen Mingwu - - 2012
We report a facile approach to synthesizing 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTS)-coated magnetic iron oxide (Fe(3)O(4)@APTS) nanoparticles (NPs) with tunable surface functional groups for potential biomedical applications. The Fe(3)O(4) NPs with a mean diameter of 6.5 nm were synthesized by a hydrothermal route in the presence of APTS. The formed amine-surfaced Fe(3)O(4)@APTS NPs were ...
Labet Vanessa - - 2012
A preliminary discussion of the general problem of localization of wave functions, and the way it is approached in theoretical condensed matter physics (Wannier functions) and theoretical chemistry (localized or fragment orbitals) is followed by an application of the ideas of Paper II in this series to the structures of ...
Markland Thomas E - - 2012
A comprehensive microscopic dynamical theory is presented for the description of quantum fluids as they transform into glasses. The theory is based on a quantum extension of mode-coupling theory. Novel effects are predicted, such as reentrant behavior of dynamical relaxation times. These predictions are supported by path integral ring polymer ...
Price Tom A - - 2012
Males usually do not provide parental care and with good reason, they may be caring for the offspring of someone else. But there are cases of male-only care even when certainty of paternity is low: why? A new model suggests female choice may provide the answer.
Labet Vanessa - - 2012
In the first of a series of four papers on hydrogen under pressure, and its transitions from an initiating molecular state, we begin by defining carefully the problem, and setting the distance scale of interactions of protons and electrons in molecular aggregates of the first of the elements. Following a ...
Miller Ryan L - - 2012
A common feature in computations of chemical and physical properties is the investigation of phenomena at different levels of computational accuracy. Less accurate computations are used to provide a relatively quick understanding of the behavior of a system and allow a researcher to focus on regions of initial conditions and ...
Fries Pascal H - - 2012
In a reference frame rigidly bound to the complex, we consider two Hamiltonians possibly at the origin of the very fast electronic relaxation of the paramagnetic lanthanide Ln(3+) ions (Ln = Ce to Nd, Tb to Yb), namely the mean (static) ligand-field Hamiltonian and the transient ligand-field Hamiltonian. In the ...
Rao F B - - 2012
With their sub-nanometer inter-sheet spacing, few-layer graphenes (FLGs) are alignment-free building blocks for nanosensors based on the inter-sheet effects. In this paper, we have tackled the challenges towards batch fabrication of inter-sheet graphene sensors through controlled layer engineering, edge tailoring and selective electrode fabrication on different atomic layers. An oxygen ...
Chang Joyce Wei Wei - - 2012
The scope and limitations of direct arylation of fluorinated aromatics with aryl sulfonates was examined. Pd(OAc)(2), in the presence of MePhos and KOAc in THF, efficiently catalyzed the direct arylation of fluoro aromatics with aryl triflates under ambient conditions. Sterically hindered triflates and heteroaryl triflates gave good to excellent yields ...
Murad Sohail - - 2012
The effect of external electric fields on enhancing ion mobility, drift velocity, and drift diffusion as a function of solution concentration has been investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. Our results show that the unusual nonlinear behavior observed when the solution concentration matches seawater is also observed when the concentration is ...
Petit Andrew S - - 2012
A thorough examination of the use of fixed-node diffusion Monte Carlo for the study of rotation-vibration mixing in systems that undergo large amplitude vibrational motions is reported. Using H(3) (+) as a model system, the overall accuracy of the method is tested by comparing the results of these calculations with ...
Kolev Vesselin - - 2012
The goal of the present work is to study theoretically the structure of water inside the water cylinder of the inverse hexagonal mesophase (H(II)) of glyceryl monooleate (monoolein, GMO), using the method of molecular dynamics. To simplify the computational model, a fixed structure of the GMO tube is maintained. The ...
Giebel Bernd - - 2012
During Drosophila sensory organ precursor cell development, Numb segregates asymmetrically and functions as a cell fate determinant. Recent work now demonstrates in vivo that Numb inactivates Notch by promoting its endocytosis.
Stehle Christian U - - 2012
The functionality of proteins is governed by their dynamics. We have performed a systematic investigation on four different proteins in the far-infrared spectral region under control of the two external parameters that have the strongest influence on the dynamics, namely temperature and hydration. The absorption measurements covering the frequency range ...
Gontrani Lorenzo - - 2012
The structural properties of liquid N-methyl pyrrolidone have been investigated by combining energy dispersive x-ray diffraction experiments and molecular dynamics simulations with generalized AMBER force field. A very good agreement between theoretical and experimental diffraction patterns was achieved. The analysis of the radial distribution functions shows that the methyl-carbonyl H-bond ...
Huang Ningdong - - 2012
We report small angle x-ray scattering data demonstrating the direct experimental microscopic observation of the small-to-large crossover behavior of hydrophobic effects in hydrophobic solvation. By increasing the side chain length of amphiphilic tetraalkyl-ammonium (C(n)H(2n+1))(4)N(+) (R(4)N(+)) cations in aqueous solution we observe diffraction peaks indicating association between cations at a solute ...
Baidakov Vladimir G - - 2012
We present the results of molecular dynamics simulation of crystal nucleation in a supercooled Lennard-Jones liquid. Temperature and baric dependences of the nucleation rate, the Zeldovich factor, nucleus size diffusion coefficient, the radius, and the pressure in a critical crystal nucleus are defined in computer simulation. The data obtained have ...
Mizuno T - - 2012
Recoil frame photoelectron angular distributions (RFPADs) of BF(3) molecules are presented over the energy region of the shape resonance in the F 1s continuum. Time-dependent density functional theory calculations are also given to understand the shape resonance dynamics. The RFPADs have been compared with the theoretical calculations. It is found ...
Willmer Pat - - 2012
Flowering plants could lose their pollination service if climate warming potentially uncouples timing of flowering from pollinator availability. Recent evidence might suggest this effect may be less than feared.
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