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Palmer Lucy M - - 2012
Interhemispheric inhibition is thought to mediate cortical rivalry between the two hemispheres through callosal input. The long-lasting form of this inhibition is believed to operate via γ-aminobutyric acid type B (GABA(B)) receptors, but the process is poorly understood at the cellular level. We found that the firing of layer 5 ...
Loehlin David W - - 2012
The genetic changes responsible for morphological differences between species are largely unidentified. Such changes can involve modifications of growth that are relevant to understanding evolution, development, and disease. We identified a gene that induces male-specific wing size and shape differences between Nasonia wasp species. Fine-scale mapping and in situ hybridization ...
Arwert Esther N EN Cancer Research UK Cambridge Research Institute, Li Ka Shing Centre, Robinson Way, Cambridge CB2 ORE, - - 2012
It is well established that tissue repair depends on stem cells and that chronic wounds predispose to tumour formation. However, the association between stem cells, wound healing and cancer is poorly understood. Lineage tracing has now shown how stem cells are mobilized to repair skin wounds and how they contribute ...
Treacy M M J - - 2012
It is widely believed that the continuous random network (CRN) model represents the structural topology of amorphous silicon. The key evidence is that the model can reproduce well experimental reduced density functions (RDFs) obtained by diffraction. By using a combination of electron diffraction and fluctuation electron microscopy (FEM) variance data ...
Jiang Yuanyuan - - 2012
Ag nanowires are prepared as templates by a polyol reduction process. Then Ag nanotubes coated with a thin layer of Pd are synthesized through sequential reduction accompanied with the galvanic displacement reaction. The products show a hollow core-shell nanotubular structure, as demonstrated by detailed characterizations. The Ag@Pd can significantly improve ...
de Mel Suresh - - 2012
Standard economic theory suggests that one-time business grants can have at most temporary effects, and accordingly, policies to increase incomes of the self-employed in developing countries typically rely on sustained engagement. In contrast, we found long-lasting impacts from one-time grants given in a randomized experiment to subsistence firms. Five years ...
Chung Hoi Sung HS Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD 20892-0520, USA. - - 2012
The transition path is the tiny fraction of an equilibrium molecular trajectory when a transition occurs as the free-energy barrier between two states is crossed. It is a single-molecule property that contains all the mechanistic information on how a process occurs. As a step toward observing transition paths in protein ...
Beaudry A L - - 2012
A new growth technique for indium tin oxide nanowhiskers with increased control over feature size and spacing is reported. The technique is based on a unique combination of self-catalysed vapour-liquid-solid (VLS) growth and glancing angle deposition (GLAD). This VLS-GLAD technique provides enhanced control over nanowhisker morphology as the effect of ...
Sandstedt Joakim - - 2012
Cardiac "side population" (SP) cells have previously been found to differentiate into both endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes in mice and rats, but there are no data on SP cells in the human adult heart. Therefore, human cardiac atrial biopsies were dissociated, stained for SP cells and analyzed with FACS. Identified ...
Jansen Vincent A A - - 2012
de Jager et al. (Reports, 24 June 2011, p. 1551) concluded that mussels Lévy walk. We confronted a larger model set with these data and found that mussels do not Lévy walk: Their movement is best described by a composite Brownian walk. This shows how model selection based on an ...
Medina-Elizalde Martín - - 2012
The disintegration of the Classic Maya civilization in the Yucatán Peninsula and Central America was a complex process that occurred over an approximately 200-year interval and involved a catastrophic depopulation of the region. Although it is well established that the civilization collapse coincided with widespread episodes of drought, their nature ...
Tissir Fadel - - 2012
The primary cilium, a signal transduction organelle, is present on the cell bodies of adult-born dentate gyrus granule cells as they begin maturation. In its absence, their maturation and integration are impaired.
Blum Elyse S ES Laboratory of Developmental Genetics, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, - - 2012
Death is a vital developmental cell fate. In Caenorhabditis elegans, programmed death of the linker cell, which leads gonadal elongation, proceeds independently of caspases and apoptotic effectors. To identify genes promoting linker-cell death, we performed a genome-wide RNA interference screen. We show that linker-cell death requires the gene pqn-41, encoding ...
Pocock Michael J O - - 2012
Understanding species' interactions and the robustness of interaction networks to species loss is essential to understand the effects of species' declines and extinctions. In most studies, different types of networks (such as food webs, parasitoid webs, seed dispersal networks, and pollination networks) have been studied separately. We sampled such multiple ...
Wyllie David J A - - 2012
A single amino acid residue determines single-channel conductance, ion permeation and channel block in the NMDA receptor, three of the key features of this ligand-gated ion channel.
Rupp Stefan - - 2012
Recent studies suggest that the mammalian heart possesses some capacity for cardiac regeneration. This regenerative capacity is primarily documented postnatally and after myocardial infarction or pressure overload. Although the cell type that mediates endogenous regeneration is unclear, cardiac stem cells might be considered as potential candidates. To determine the number ...
Qian Pengfei - - 2012
Ever since its inception, a popular DNA motif called the cross tile has been recognized to self-assemble into addressable 2D templates consisting of periodic square cavities. Although this may be conceptually correct, in reality certain types of cross tiles can only form planar lattices if adjacent tiles are designed to ...
Medzhitov Ruslan - - 2012
The immune system protects from infections primarily by detecting and eliminating the invading pathogens; however, the host organism can also protect itself from infectious diseases by reducing the negative impact of infections on host fitness. This ability to tolerate a pathogen's presence is a distinct host defense strategy, which has ...
Pauluis Olivier - - 2012
A substantial amount of frictional dissipation in the atmosphere occurs in the microphysical shear zones surrounding falling precipitation. The dissipation rate is computed here from recently available satellite retrieval from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Missions and is found to average 1.8 watts per square meter between 30°S and 30°N. The ...
Oren Iris I University College London Institute of Neurology, London, - - 2012
A synthesis of opto- and pharmacogenetics is beginning to reveal how various interneuron types direct incoming traffic in the hippocampus to help create a map of the environment.
Hsu Lewis L LL University of Illinois, - - 2012
Hydroxyurea treatment of sickle cell mice improved their survival from pneumococcal pneumonia, counteracting the abnormally elevated inflammatory response and reducing invasion of bacteria into the bloodstream, through down regulation of E-selectin.
Myers Karyn M KM Behavioral Genetics Laboratory, McLean Hospital, Belmont, Massachusetts, - - 2012
Conditioned opiate withdrawal contributes to relapse in addicts and can be studied in rats by using the opiate withdrawal-induced conditioned place aversion (OW-CPA) paradigm. Attenuation of conditioned withdrawal through extinction may be beneficial in the treatment of addiction. Here we describe a protocol for studying OW-CPA extinction using a two-chambered ...
Schmitz Anja - - 2012
The threat of predictable and unpredictable aversive events was developed to assess short-duration (fear) and long-duration (anxiety) aversive states in humans. A typical experiment consists of three conditions: a safe condition (neutral (N)), during which participants are safe from aversive stimuli, and two threat conditions-one in which aversive events are ...
Takahashi Hazuki H RIKEN Omics Science Center, RIKEN Yokohama Institute, Yokohama, - - 2012
Cap-analysis gene expression (CAGE) provides accurate high-throughput measurement of RNA expression. CAGE allows mapping of all the initiation sites of both capped coding and noncoding RNAs. In addition, transcriptional start sites within promoters are characterized at single-nucleotide resolution. The latter allows the regulatory inputs driving gene expression to be studied, ...
Lienhard Daniel M - - 2012
Glass transition temperatures T(g) are investigated in aqueous binary and multi-component solutions consisting of citric acid, calcium nitrate (Ca(NO(3))(2)), malonic acid, raffinose, and ammonium bisulfate (NH(4)HSO(4)) using a differential scanning calorimeter. Based on measured glass transition temperatures of binary aqueous mixtures and fitted binary coefficients, the T(g) of multi-component systems ...
Yen Hsu-Heng HH Department of Gastroenterology, Endoscopy Center, Changhua Christian Hospital, 500 Changhua, Taiwan, China. - - 2012
To evaluate the clinical impact of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) before double-balloon endoscopy (DBE) for patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected cases with DBE and MDCT for overt OGIB was conducted from April 2004 to April 2010 at Changhua Christian Hospital. We evaluated the ...
Mizuno T - - 2012
Recoil frame photoelectron angular distributions (RFPADs) of BF(3) molecules are presented over the energy region of the shape resonance in the F 1s continuum. Time-dependent density functional theory calculations are also given to understand the shape resonance dynamics. The RFPADs have been compared with the theoretical calculations. It is found ...
Giebel Bernd - - 2012
During Drosophila sensory organ precursor cell development, Numb segregates asymmetrically and functions as a cell fate determinant. Recent work now demonstrates in vivo that Numb inactivates Notch by promoting its endocytosis.
Stehle Christian U - - 2012
The functionality of proteins is governed by their dynamics. We have performed a systematic investigation on four different proteins in the far-infrared spectral region under control of the two external parameters that have the strongest influence on the dynamics, namely temperature and hydration. The absorption measurements covering the frequency range ...
Rahimi Roja - - 2012
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gut disorder with high prevalence. Because of various factors involved in its pathophysiology and disappointing results from conventional IBS medications, the treatment of IBS is challenging and use of complementary and alternative medicines especially herbal therapies is increasing. In this paper, electronic databases ...
Surana K - - 2012
In recent years, silicon nanostructures have been investigated extensively for their potential use in photonic and photovoltaic applications. So far, for silicon quantum dots embedded in SiO(2), control over inter-dot distance and size has only been observed in multiple bilayer stacks of silicon-rich oxides and silicon dioxide. In this work, ...
Pronobis Mira I - - 2012
Wnt signaling regulates virtually every cell fate decision during development. How can the same signal trigger such diverse events? Engaging different transcriptional machinery via different protein interfaces on the transcriptional co-activator β-catenin provides part of the answer.
Pelphrey Kevin A - - 2012
A new study has found that neural sensitivity to eye gaze in early infancy is associated with subsequent development of autism. This discovery provides a much-needed biomarker for autism spectrum disorder prior to emergence of behavioral symptoms.
Abajo Ana A Laboratory of Pharmacogenomics, Division of Oncology, Center for Applied Medical Research, University of Navarra, Avda Pio XII 55, 31008 Pamplona, - - 2012
To investigate the angiogenesis-related protein expression profile characterizing metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) with the aim of identifying prognostic markers. The expression of 44 angiogenesis-secreted factors was measured by a novel cytokine antibody array methodology. The study evaluated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor ...
Gubbels Koos B - - 2012
We theoretically study slow collisions of NH(3) molecules with He atoms, where we focus in particular on the observation of scattering resonances. We calculate state-to-state integral and differential cross sections for collision energies ranging from 10(-4) cm(-1) to 130 cm(-1), using fully converged quantum close-coupling calculations. To describe the interaction ...
Markland Thomas E - - 2012
A comprehensive microscopic dynamical theory is presented for the description of quantum fluids as they transform into glasses. The theory is based on a quantum extension of mode-coupling theory. Novel effects are predicted, such as reentrant behavior of dynamical relaxation times. These predictions are supported by path integral ring polymer ...
Shishido Takayoshi T Department of Gastroenterology, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 734-8551, - - 2012
To assess the diagnostic success and outcome among patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding who underwent total enteroscopy with double-balloon endoscopy. Total enteroscopy was attempted in 156 patients between August 2003 and June 2008 at Hiroshima University Hospital and achieved in 75 (48.1%). It is assessed whether sources of bleeding were ...
Murad Sohail - - 2012
The effect of external electric fields on enhancing ion mobility, drift velocity, and drift diffusion as a function of solution concentration has been investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. Our results show that the unusual nonlinear behavior observed when the solution concentration matches seawater is also observed when the concentration is ...
Sipos Ferenc - - 2012
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal and mesenchymal-to-epithelial transitions are well established biological events which have an important role in not just normal tissue and organ development, but in the pathogenesis of diseases. Increasing evidence has established their presence in the human colon during colorectal carcinogenesis and cancer invasion, chronic inflammation-related fibrosis and in the ...
McCaskey Sarah J SJ Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, - - 2012
To characterize the influence of diet-induced changes in body fat on colitis severity in SMAD3-/- mice. SMAD3-/- mice (6-8 wk of age) were randomly assigned to receive a calorie restricted (30% of control; CR), control (CON), or high fat (HF) diet for 20 wk and were gavaged with sterile broth ...
Yabunaka S - - 2012
We study self-propelled dynamics of a droplet due to a Marangoni effect and chemical reactions in a binary fluid with a dilute third component of chemical product which affects the interfacial energy of a droplet. The equation for the migration velocity of the center of mass of a droplet is ...
Meesiri Somchai S Department of Surgery, Mae Sot General Hospital, Mae Sot, Tak 63110, Thailand. - - 2012
Pancreatic tuberculosis (TB) is a relatively rare disease that can mimic carcinoma, lymphoma, cystic neoplasia, retroperitoneal tumors, pancreatitis or pseudocysts. Here, I report the case of a 31-year-old immigrant Burmese woman who exhibited epigastralgia, fever, weight loss and an epigastric mass. The patient was diagnosed with pancreatic TB and acquired ...
Sheppard Daniel - - 2012
A generalized solid-state nudged elastic band (G-SSNEB) method is presented for determining reaction pathways of solid-solid transformations involving both atomic and unit-cell degrees of freedom. We combine atomic and cell degrees of freedom into a unified description of the crystal structure so that calculated reaction paths are insensitive to the ...
Oh Cheong Ah CA Department of Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Irwon-dong, Gangnamgu, Seoul 135-710, South - - 2012
To investigate the correlation between the nutritional risk index (NRI) and postoperative wound complications. From January 2008 through June 2008, 669 patients who underwent curative gastrectomy for gastric cancer were included in a retrospective study. Medical records of consecutive patients were collected and analyzed to determine postoperative wound complication rates. ...
Labet Vanessa - - 2012
In order to explain the intricate dance of intramolecular (intra-proton-pair) H-H separations observed in a numerical laboratory of calculationally preferred static hydrogen structures under pressure, we examine two effects through discrete molecular models. The first effect, we call it physical, is of simple confinement. We review a salient model already ...
Surdea-Blaga Teodora T 2nd Medical Department, University of Medicine and Pharmacy IuliuHatieganu, Cluj-Napoca 400006, - - 2012
From a pure motor disorder of the bowel, in the past few years, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has become a multifactorial disease that implies visceral hypersensitivity, alterations at the level of nervous and humoral communications between the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system, alteration of the gut microflora, ...
Ghassemi Hessam M - - 2012
The electrical properties of boron nitride (BN) nanostructures, particularly BN nanotubes (NTs), have been studied less in comparison to the counterpart carbon nanotubes. The present work investigates the field emission (FE) behavior of BNNTs under multiple cycles of FE experiments and demonstrates a strain-engineering pathway to tune the electronic properties ...
Wu Qing-Jun - - 2012
Adamantiades-Behcet's disease (ABD) is a chronic, relapsing, systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology. It is more prevalent in populations along the ancient Silk Road from Eastern Asia to the Mediterranean Basin, and most frequently affects young adults between the second and fourth decades of life. ABD-complicated gastroenteropathy is a significant cause ...
Huang Ningdong - - 2012
We report small angle x-ray scattering data demonstrating the direct experimental microscopic observation of the small-to-large crossover behavior of hydrophobic effects in hydrophobic solvation. By increasing the side chain length of amphiphilic tetraalkyl-ammonium (C(n)H(2n+1))(4)N(+) (R(4)N(+)) cations in aqueous solution we observe diffraction peaks indicating association between cations at a solute ...
Wood Jenifer M JM Beatson Institute for Cancer Research, Garscube Estate, Glasgow G61 1BD, - - 2012
Collective epithelial cell migration facilitates formation and maintenance of continuous sheets that line the surfaces and cavities of glands and tissues. By screening Rho GTPase regulators, myosin-IXA RhoGAP was identified as a key requirement for cell-cell adhesions that permit collective migration.
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