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Results 301 - 350 of 2173
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Kong Ling-An - - 2012
Chitin is a major component of fungal cell wall and is synthesized by chitin synthases (Chs). Plant pathogenic fungi normally have multiple chitin synthase genes. To determine their roles in development and pathogenesis, we functionally characterized all seven CHS genes in Magnaporthe oryzae. Three of them, CHS1, CHS6, and CHS7, ...
Umar Sanusi - - 2012
BACKGROUND: The large caliber of head hair in hair transplantation imparts a coarse hairline, whereas natural hairlines are typically softer. In hirsute individuals, transplantation of leg hair to the hairline may result in a superior aesthetic appearance. Observation  A total of 1025 leg hair follicles in 1 patient were grafted ...
Chopra Vineet - - 2012
To assess the influence of perioperative statin treatment on the risk of death, myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, and hospital and intensive care unit length of stay in statin-naive patients undergoing cardiac or noncardiac surgery. MEDLINE via PubMed, EMBASE, Biosis, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials via Ovid. Additional ...
Tian Wei-Wei - - 2012
The tree shrews, as an ideal animal model receiving extensive attentions to human disease research, demands essential research tools, in particular cellular markers and monoclonal antibodies for immunological studies. In this paper, a 1 365 bp of the full-length CD4 cDNA encoding sequence was cloned from total RNA in peripheral ...
Paintner Ashley - - 2012
In the United States, approximately 80 000 women consume ethanol through all 3 trimesters of pregnancy each year. In this article, we review prevalence rates of prenatal alcohol exposure in the United States and discuss the mechanisms of prenatal alcohol exposure and placental-umbilical effects. Cigarette smoking and delayed prenatal care are ...
Jantscher-Krenn E - - 2012
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO), unconjugated complex carbohydrates that are highly abundant in human milk but not in infant formula, have recently received much attention due to their potential benefits for the breast-fed neonate. While it is becoming evident that HMO structure determines their specific function, understanding the metabolic fate of ...
Oreskovich Michael R - - 2012
To determine the point prevalence of alcohol abuse and dependence among practicing surgeons. Cross-sectional study with data gathered through a 2010 survey. The United States of America. Members of the American College of Surgeons. Alcohol abuse and dependence. Of 25,073 surgeons sampled, 7197 (28.7%) completed the survey. Of these, 1112 ...
Pobeguts O V - - 2012
It has been shown that thermoinactivation of the isolated D1/D2/cytochrome b(559) complex (RC) of photosystem 2 (PS-2) from pea under anaerobic conditions at 35°C in 20 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.2) depleted of HCO(3)(-), with 35 mM NaCl and 0.05% n-dodecyl-β-maltoside, results in a decrease in photochemical activity measured by photoreduction of the ...
Zhang Yuan-Xu - - 2012
The tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) is a small non-rodent mammal, which is a relatively new experimental animal in medicine due to its close evolutionary relationship to primates and its rapid propagation. Sperm characteristics and cryopreservation in the tree shrew were the main contents of our spermatological research. Epididymal sperm ...
Nagatomo Fumiko - - 2012
Animal models of type 2 diabetes exhibit reduced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) messenger RNA (mRNA) levels, which are associated with decreased oxidative capacity, in skeletal muscles. In contrast, animal models with metabolic syndrome show normal PGC-1α mRNA levels. We hypothesized that a high-fat diet decreases PGC-1α mRNA levels in ...
Haggstrom Anita N - - 2012
Objectives  To develop instruments that measure the severity of infantile hemangiomas (Hemangioma Severity Scale [HSS]) and the complications of infantile hemangiomas for longitudinal use (Hemangioma Dynamic Complication Scale [HDCS]). Instrument development and reliability study. Academic research. The HSS and the HDCS were developed through the collaborative effort of members of ...
Schneider Daniel S - - 2012
To describe the use of the internal mammary vessels (IMVs) in microvascular head and neck reconstruction in a small case series with select donor sites. Retrospective medical record review study. Oregon Health and Science University and University of Alabama. Patients for whom IMVs were used for head and neck reconstruction ...
Kuvibidila Solo R - - 2012
Iron deficiency, a worldwide public health problem in children and adult women, impairs innate and cell-mediated immunity including interferon-γ secretion. Its effects on interleukin (IL)-4 have not been well investigated. Interleukin-4, a cytokine primarily secreted by TH2 lymphocytes, regulates B-cell proliferation and the switching of immunoglobulin (Ig)M to IgE subtypes; ...
Gaze Soraya - - 2012
The mucosal cytokine response of healthy humans to parasitic helminths has never been reported. We investigated the systemic and mucosal cytokine responses to hookworm infection in experimentally infected, previously hookworm naive individuals from non-endemic areas. We collected both peripheral blood and duodenal biopsies to assess the systemic immune response, as ...
Molsberger A - - 2012
Large randomized controlled trials have shown the effectiveness of acupuncture in comparison to various control treatments for low back pain, osteoarthrosis, shoulder pain, tension type headache, and migraine. For most of these diseases the cost-effectiveness of acupuncture has been proven. A few smaller controlled trials exist for tennis elbow and ...
Rivera Albert E - - 2012
To make available a simple, quantitative formula for preoperative assessment of both the complexity and the associated time required to complete Mohs surgical cases. It will improve office efficiency, technical performance, and resource management. Surveys were sent to 94 Mohs surgeons requesting information on 10 consecutive cases, including tumor size, ...
Dai Yuemeng - - 2012
To examine the location and degree of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein expression in hemangioma growth, involution, and during propranolol therapy. Cross-sectional study. University hospital. Pediatric patients with hemangiomas. Fresh human hemangioma specimens at various stages of development were harvested. Effective propranolol therapy had been implemented in some patients. ...
Yamada Kana - - 2012
Oxidative stress modulates the osteoclast differentiation via redox systems, and thioredoxin 1 (Trx) promotes the osteoclast formation by regulating the activity of transcription factors. The function of Trx is known to be regulated by its binding partner, thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP). We previously reported that the expression of TXNIP gene is ...
Gu Shuang - - 2012
Gram-negative bacteria secrete virulence factors and assemble fibre structures on their cell surface using specialized secretion systems. Three of these, T2SS, T3SS and T4PS, are characterized by large outer membrane channels formed by proteins called secretins. Usually, a cognate lipoprotein pilot is essential for the assembly of the secretin in ...
Shilbayeh Sireen - - 2012
Recently, many international studies have suggested that pediatric patients from diverse ethnic origins confront unique challenges for transplantation. Data concerning the efficacy and safety of transplantation for various pediatric renal transplant populations remains limited and are often confounded by immunosuppressive protocols. In one study, we aimed to evaluate the short- ...
Hosseini Iraj - - 2012
The human APOBEC3G is an innate restriction factor that, in the absence of Vif, restricts HIV-1 replication by inducing excessive deamination of cytidine residues in nascent reverse transcripts and inhibiting reverse transcription and integration. To shed light on impact of A3G-Vif interactions on HIV replication, we developed a multi-scale computational ...
Fukuda Tomoyuki - - 2012
Meiotic recombination and chromosome synapsis between homologous chromosomes are essential for proper chromosome segregation at the first meiotic division. While recombination and synapsis, as well as checkpoints that monitor these two events, take place in the context of a prophase I-specific axial chromosome structure, it remains unclear how chromosome axis ...
Delaney Nigel F - - 2012
Measureable rates of genome evolution are well documented in human pathogens but are less well understood in bacterial pathogens in the wild, particularly during and after host switches. Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is a pathogenic bacterium that has evolved predominantly in poultry and recently jumped to wild house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus), ...
Börgers Christoph - - 2012
In networks of excitatory and inhibitory neurons with mutual synaptic coupling, specific drive to sub-ensembles of cells often leads to gamma-frequency (25-100 Hz) oscillations. When the number of driven cells is too small, however, the synaptic interactions may not be strong or homogeneous enough to support the mechanism underlying the ...
Oliveira Rodrigo F - - 2012
Dopamine release in the striatum has been implicated in various forms of reward dependent learning. Dopamine leads to production of cAMP and activation of protein kinase A (PKA), which are involved in striatal synaptic plasticity and learning. PKA and its protein targets are not diffusely located throughout the neuron, but ...
Kim Jinho - - 2012
PDZ domain-mediated interactions have greatly expanded during metazoan evolution, becoming important for controlling signal flow via the assembly of multiple signaling components. The evolutionary history of PDZ domain-mediated interactions has never been explored at the molecular level. It is of great interest to understand how PDZ domain-ligand interactions emerged and ...
Zhuang Joanna - - 2012
Aberrant DNA methylation is an important cancer hallmark, yet the dynamics of DNA methylation changes in human carcinogenesis remain largely unexplored. Moreover, the role of DNA methylation for prediction of clinical outcome is still uncertain and confined to specific cancers. Here we perform the most comprehensive study of DNA methylation ...
Wanat Karolyn A - - 2012
Viral-associated trichodysplasia of immunosuppression is a rare cutaneous eruption that is characterized by follicularly based shiny papules and alopecia with characteristic histopathologic findings of abnormally anagen follicules with excessive inner root sheath differentiation. Prior reports have described the histopathologic characteristics on vertical sections; however, to our knowledge, immunohistochemical analysis of ...
Shigemizu Daichi - - 2012
The cost and time to develop a drug continues to be a major barrier to widespread distribution of medication. Although the genomic revolution appears to have had little impact on this problem, and might even have exacerbated it because of the flood of additional and usually ineffective leads, the emergence ...
Arts Theo - - 2012
Geometry of the heart adapts to mechanical load, imposed by pressures and volumes of the cavities. We regarded preservation of cardiac geometry as a homeostatic control system. The control loop was simulated by a chain of models, starting with geometry of the cardiac walls, sequentially simulating circulation hemodynamics, myofiber stress ...
Ackermann Marit - - 2012
Epistatic genetic interactions are key for understanding the genetic contribution to complex traits. Epistasis is always defined with respect to some trait such as growth rate or fitness. Whereas most existing epistasis screens explicitly test for a trait, it is also possible to implicitly test for fitness traits by searching ...
Rohlfs Rori V - - 2012
With the expansion of offender/arrestee DNA profile databases, genetic forensic identification has become commonplace in the United States criminal justice system. Implementation of familial searching has been proposed to extend forensic identification to family members of individuals with profiles in offender/arrestee DNA databases. In familial searching, a partial genetic profile ...
McCue Andrea D - - 2012
The epigenetic activity of transposable elements (TEs) can influence the regulation of genes; though, this regulation is confined to the genes, promoters, and enhancers that neighbor the TE. This local cis regulation of genes therefore limits the influence of the TE's epigenetic regulation on the genome. TE activity is suppressed ...
Nishimura Taisuke - - 2012
Shifts between epigenetic states of transcriptional activity are typically correlated with changes in epigenetic marks. However, exceptions to this rule suggest the existence of additional, as yet uncharacterized, layers of epigenetic regulation. MOM1, a protein of 2,001 amino acids that acts as a transcriptional silencer, represents such an exception. Here ...
Gruber Jonathan D - - 2012
Genetic variation within and between species can be shaped by population-level processes and mutation; however, the relative impact of "survival of the fittest" and "arrival of the fittest" on phenotypic evolution remains unclear. Assessing the influence of mutation on evolution requires understanding the relative rates of different types of mutations ...
Reeves Paul H - - 2012
For self-pollinating plants to reproduce, male and female organ development must be coordinated as flowers mature. The Arabidopsis transcription factors AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 6 (ARF6) and ARF8 regulate this complex process by promoting petal expansion, stamen filament elongation, anther dehiscence, and gynoecium maturation, thereby ensuring that pollen released from the ...
Parsa Jahan-Yar - - 2012
Antibody diversification necessitates targeted mutation of regions within the immunoglobulin locus by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). While AID is known to act on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), the source, structure, and distribution of these substrates in vivo remain unclear. Using the technique of in situ bisulfite treatment, we characterized these substrates-which ...
Im Hae Kyung - - 2012
The International HapMap project has made publicly available extensive genotypic data on a number of lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). Building on this resource, many research groups have generated a large amount of phenotypic data on these cell lines to facilitate genetic studies of disease risk or drug response. However, one ...
Sun Kailiang - - 2012
miR-124 is conserved in sequence and neuronal expression across the animal kingdom and is predicted to have hundreds of mRNA targets. Diverse defects in neural development and function were reported from miR-124 antisense studies in vertebrates, but a nematode knockout of mir-124 surprisingly lacked detectable phenotypes. To provide genetic insight ...
Aromdee Chantana - - 2012
Andrographis paniculata Nees, Acanthaceae, is a well-recognised medicinal plant in Asia. It has been reported to possess a variety of biological activities. The main constituent of A. paniculata is andrographolide (Androg). Since the plant is known to treat many diseases, Androg was modified for many biological activities to treat and ...
Álvarez Pablo - - 2012
The fluorinated analog of uracil 5-FU is an antimetabolite, active against a wide range of solid tumors. The main mechanism of action consists in interfering with DNA synthesis and mRNA translation. However, patients treated with 5-FU display several side effects, a result of its nonspecific cytotoxicity for tumor cells. Numerous ...
De Prithwiraj - - 2012
The high susceptibility of human immunodeficiency virus-infected people to tuberculosis (TB), the emergence of multi-drug-resistant (MDR-TB) strains and extensively drug-resistant (XDR-TB) ones, has brought TB into the focus of urgent scientific interest. As a result, there has been an upsurge in recent years to find new anti-TB agents, with the ...
Schueller G - - 2012
Coxarthrosis is one of the most frequent indications in radiological practice with a prevalence as high as 8%. Radiography, sonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging. Magnetic resonance arthrography for detection of early stages of labral and chondral pathologies as well as detection of osteonecrosis at an early stage. Czerny C, ...
Dejaco C - - 2012
Clinical examination and laboratory results are often insufficient to support therapeutic decisions. Diagnosis and organ-related imaging may provide important additional information for initial diagnosis (differential diagnoses), follow-up and prognosis. Especially functional imaging techniques, such as ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging are becoming more and more important for early diagnosis. Imaging ...
Krifter R M - - 2012
Imaging for shoulder surgery varies a lot nowadays. Advantages and disadvantages of possible imaging methods according to the pathology and treatment options are described. Digital projection radiography in 3 planes, ultrasonography, MRI, CT scanning and scintigrams. Special axial view to visualize the glenoid situation, as well as 3-D CT scanning ...
Leblond Claire S CS Human Genetics and Cognitive Functions, Institut Pasteur, Paris, - - 2012
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders with a complex inheritance pattern. While many rare variants in synaptic proteins have been identified in patients with ASD, little is known about their effects at the synapse and their interactions with other genetic variations. Here, following the discovery ...
Bibila Mayaya Bisseyou Yvon - - 2012
In the title compound, C(16)H(17)N(3)O(4), the six-membered N-containing ring adopts a half-chair conformation. One C atom of the five-membered ring is disordered over two sites, with occupancy factors of ca 0.67 and 0.33. The major pyrroline component adopts a half-chair conformation. Inter-molecular C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds forming centrosymmetric dimers are observed ...
Gao Shan - - 2012
The coordination polymer [Zn(2)(C(10)H(8)O(5))(2)(H(2)O)(3)](n) adopts a layer structure in which the two independent Zn(II) ions exist in trigonal-bipyramidal coordination geometries. One carboxyl-ate dianion binds to a monoaqua-coordinated metal ion through the aliphatic carboxyl-ate end and to the diaqua-coordinated metal ion through the aromatic carboxyl-ate end; the other dianion binds in ...
Deng Zhao-Peng - - 2012
The reaction of silver nitrate with 5-chloro-2-hy-droxy-benzene-sulfonic acid in the presence of ammonia yielded the title salt, (NH(4))[Ag(NH(3))(2)](C(6)H(4)ClO(4)S)(2)·3H(2)O. The Ag(I) ion shows linear coordination [N-Ag-N = 175.2 (1) °]. The ammonium and diamminesilver cations, the benzene-sulfonate anion and the lattice water mol-ecules inter-act through an intricate network of N-H⋯O and O-H⋯O ...
Malekshahian Mohammad - - 2012
The title compound, [Cd(NCS)(2)(C(14)H(14)N(2))(2)], features crystallographic inversion symmetry with the Cd(II) ion located on a centre of inversion. The Cd(II) ion is six-coordinated in a slightly distorted octa-hedral geometry with the thiocyanate anions in axial positions. The angle between the benzene and pyridine rings is 69.64 (9)°. An inter-molecular C-H⋯S hydrogen ...
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