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Results 501 - 550 of 999
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Meerpohl Joerg J - - 2012
Thalassemia is a hereditary anaemia due to ineffective erythropoiesis. In particular, people with thalassaemia major develop secondary iron overload resulting from regular red blood cell transfusion. Iron chelation therapy is needed to prevent long-term complications.Both deferoxamine and deferiprone have been found to be efficacious. However, a systematic review of the ...
Cheng Suzanne - - 2012
Erosive lichen planus (ELP) affecting mucosal surfaces is a chronic autoimmune disease of unknown aetiology. It is often more painful and debilitating than the non-erosive types of lichen planus. Treatment is difficult and aimed at palliation rather than cure. Several topical and systemic agents have been used with varying results. ...
Tan Kenneth - - 2012
Pulmonary surfactant is an important part of the host defence against respiratory infections. Bacterial pneumonia in late preterm or term newborn infants often leads to surfactant deficiency or dysfunction, as surfactant is either inactivated or peroxidated. Studies of animal models of pneumonia and clinical case reports suggest that exogenous surfactant ...
Furlong Mairead - - 2012
Early-onset child conduct problems are common and costly. A large number of studies and some previous reviews have focused on behavioural and cognitive-behavioural group-based parenting interventions, but methodological limitations are commonplace and evidence for the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these programmes has been unclear. To assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness ...
Bleakley Chris - - 2012
Many strategies are in use with the intention of preventing or minimising delayed onset muscle soreness and fatigue after exercise. Cold-water immersion, in water temperatures of less than 15°C, is currently one of the most popular interventional strategies used after exercise. To determine the effects of cold-water immersion in the ...
Brett-Major David M - - 2012
Leptospirosis has a wide-ranging clinical and public health impact. Leptospira are globally distributed. Case attack rates are as high as 1:4 to 2:5 persons in exposed populations. In some settings mortality has exceeded 10% of infected people. The benefit of antibiotic therapy in the disease has been unclear. We sought ...
Schoonees Anel - - 2012
Oxidative stress has been implicated in the development of a number of conditions including cancer, arthritic disorders and cardiovascular disease. Pycnogenol(®), a herbal dietary supplement derived from French maritime pine bark extract, is standardised to contain 70% procyanidin which is a powerful antioxidant. Pycnogenol(®) is marketed as a supplement for ...
Formoso Giulio - - 2012
Tibolone is an option available for the treatment of menopausal symptoms, based on short-term data on its efficacy. However, there is a need to consider the balance between the benefits and risks of tibolone as there are concerns about breast and endometrial cancer as well as stroke. To evaluate the ...
Tang Huilin - - 2012
Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a complication resulting from administration of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) in assisted reproduction technology (ART) treatment. Most case are mild, but forms of moderate or severe OHSS appear in 3% to 8% of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) cycles. Recently, the dopamine agonist cabergoline has been ...
Dat Anthony D - - 2012
Aloe vera is a cactus-like perennial succulent belonging to the Liliaceae Family that is commonly grown in tropical climates. Animal studies have suggested that Aloe vera may help accelerate the wound healing process. To determine the effects of Aloe vera-derived products (for example dressings and topical gels) on the healing ...
Derry Sheena - - 2012
Migraine is a common, disabling condition and a burden for the individual, health services and society. Many sufferers choose not to, or are unable to, seek professional help and rely on over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics. Diclofenac is an established analgesic, and new formulations using the potassium or epolamine salts, which can ...
Elkins Mark - - 2012
Inhalation of hypertonic saline improves sputum rheology, accelerates mucociliary clearance and improves clinical outcomes of people with cystic fibrosis. To determine whether the timing of hypertonic saline inhalation (in relation to airway clearance techniques or in relation to time of day) has an impact on its clinical efficacy in people ...
Liu Hongqian - - 2012
Robotic surgery is the latest innovation in the field of minimally invasive surgery. In the case of robotic surgery, instead of directly moving the instruments the surgeon uses a robotic system to control the instruments for surgical procedures. Robotic surgical systems have been used in various gynaecological surgeries for benign ...
Cedin Antonio C - - 2012
Congenital choanal atresia is a rare abnormality characterized by unilateral or bilateral lack of patency of the posterior end of the nasal cavity. With an incidence of 1:5000 to 1:8000 births, it is twice as prevalent in females as it is in males. Surgical procedures aim to provide adequate functional ...
Sitjà Rabert Mercè - - 2012
Whole-body vibration (WBV) may be a complementary training to standard physical rehabilitation programmes and appears to have potential benefits in the sensorimotor system performance of patients with neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this review was to examine the efficacy of WBV to improve functional performance according to basic activities of ...
Dumville Jo C - - 2012
Foot ulcers in people with diabetes mellitus are a common and serious global health issue. Dressings form a key part of ulcer treatment, with clinicians and patients having many different types to choose from including alginate dressings. A clear and current overview of current evidence is required to facilitate decision-making ...
Derry Christopher J - - 2012
Migraine is a highly disabling condition for the individual and also has wide-reaching implications for society, healthcare services, and the economy. Sumatriptan is an abortive medication for migraine attacks, belonging to the triptan family. Rectal administration may be preferable to oral for individuals experiencing nausea and/or vomiting. To determine the ...
Derry Christopher J - - 2012
Migraine is a highly disabling condition for the individual and also has wide-reaching implications for society, healthcare services, and the economy. Sumatriptan is an abortive medication for migraine attacks, belonging to the triptan family. Subcutaneous administration may be preferable to oral for individuals experiencing nausea and/or vomiting To determine the ...
Soares-Weiser Karla - - 2012
Rotavirus results in more diarrhoea-related deaths in children less than five years of age than any other single agent in low- and middle-income countries. It is also a common cause of diarrhoea-related hospital admissions in high-income countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that all children should be vaccinated with ...
Preston Nancy J - - 2012
Anaemia occurs in 68% to 77% of patients with advanced cancer, however, only a minority of patients who are admitted to a hospice receive a blood transfusion. It is unclear what the benefit of blood transfusion is in advanced cancer, who is most likely to respond and also for how ...
Bain Emily - - 2012
The effectiveness of antenatal magnesium sulphate for neuroprotection of the fetus, infant, and child prior to very preterm birth, when given to women considered at risk of preterm birth, has been established. There is currently no consensus as to the regimen to use in terms of the dose, duration, the ...
Oladapo Olufemi T - - 2012
There is a general agreement that oxytocin given either through the intramuscular or intravenous route is effective in reducing postpartum blood loss. However, it is unclear whether the subtle differences between the mode of action of these routes have any effect on maternal and infant outcomes. To determine the comparative ...
Robinson Karen A - - 2012
Respiratory syncytial virus infection causes acute lung infection in infants and young children worldwide, resulting in considerable morbidity and mortality. Children with cystic fibrosis are prone to recurrent lung inflammation, bacterial colonisation and subsequent chronic airway disease, putting them at risk for severe respiratory syncytial virus infections requiring intensive care ...
De-Regil Luz Maria - - 2012
Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency is thought to be common among pregnant women. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy has been suggested as an intervention to protect against adverse gestational outcomes. To examine whether supplements with vitamin D alone or in combination with calcium or other vitamins and minerals given to ...
Artacho-Cordón Antonia - - 2012
It is now widely accepted that the development and progression of a tumor toward the malignant phenotype is highly dependent on interactions between tumor cells and the tumor microenvironment. Different components of the tumor microenvironment may have stimulatory or inhibitory effects on tumor progression by regulating the gene expression repertoire ...
Bhattacharya Bhaskar - - 2012
Phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors are an emerging class of anti-cancer agents. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor, PI103, could synergize with the chemotherapeutic agent, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) by inhibiting E2F1, thymidylate synthase (TS) and enhancing DNA damage. Drug combination effects were assessed ...
Kong Xiaoli - - 2012
The development of systemic therapy drug resistance for breast cancer treatment is an ongoing problem, thus, so are the potential molecular mechanisms of it. AZD6244 is a novel ATP-uncompetitive inhibitor to MAP/ERK kinase (MEK) 1/2 which has been demonstrated to be potent, selective and safe in the clinical trials and ...
Ohta Tsuyoshi - - 2012
Rho, a Ras-related small GTPase, and Rho-associated coiled coil-containing protein kinase (Rho kinase, ROCK1 and ROCK2) are key regulators of focal adhesion, actomyosin contraction, and thus cell motility. Rho/ROCK kinases also play roles in proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and oncogenic transformation. In the present study, we have shown that Rho/ROCK pathway ...
Trang Nguyen Hoang Hanh Doan - - 2012
The Ho Chi Minh Youth cohort study aimed to assess the change in nutritional status; indicators of adiposity; diet; physical activity and sedentary behaviours; home, neighbourhood and school microenvironments and their complex relationships in adolescents in urban areas of Ho Chi Minh City. Prospective 5-year cohort. Systematic random sampling was ...
Dumville Jo C - - 2012
Foot ulcers in people with diabetes are a prevalent and serious global health issue. Wound dressings are regarded as important components of ulcer treatment, with clinicians and patients having many different types to choose from including hydrocolloid dressings. There is a range of different hydrocolloids available including fibrous-hydrocolloid and hydrocolloid ...
Vallon Volker V Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. - - 2012
Diabetes mellitus affects the kidney in stages. At the onset of diabetes mellitus, in a subset of diabetic patients the kidneys grow large, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) becomes supranormal, which are risk factors for developing diabetic nephropathy later in life. This review outlines a pathophysiological concept that focuses on ...
Ooi Cheow Peng CP Department ofMedicine, Universiti PutraMalaysia, Serdang,Malaysia. - - 2012
Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is among the most nutritious subtropical and tropical vegetables. It is also used in traditional medicine practices for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Research in animal and human models suggests a possible role of sweet potato in glycaemic control. To assess the effects of sweet potato for ...
Choi Hwan Jun HJ Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan, Republic of Korea. - - 2012
Accessory parotid gland tissue has been described as salivary tissue adjacent to the Stensen duct that is distinctly separate from the main body of the parotid gland. Of all parotid gland tumors, 1% to 8% arise from the accessory parotid gland. Little is known about the accessory parotid gland, and ...
Gurusamy Kurinchi Selvan KS Department of Surgery, Royal Free Campus, UCL Medical School, London, UK. - - 2012
Incisional hernias are caused by the failure of the wall of the abdomen to close after abdominal surgery, leaving a hole through which the viscera protrude. Incisional hernias are repaired by further surgery. Surgical drains are frequently inserted during hernia repair with the aim of facilitating fluid drainage and preventing ...
Noble Douglas D Centre for Primary Care and Public Health, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, UK. - - 2012
To explore the feasibility of producing small-area geospatial maps of chronic disease risk for use by clinical commissioning groups and public health teams. Cross-sectional geospatial analysis using routinely collected general practitioner electronic record data. Tower Hamlets, an inner-city district of London, UK, characterised by high socioeconomic and ethnic diversity and ...
Li Luying Ryan - - 2012
Rupture of an intracranial aneurysm causes aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage, which is one of the most devastating clinical conditions. Clinically, it can be classified into five grades using the Hunt-Hess or World Federation of Neurological Surgeons (WFNS) scale. Grades 4 and 5 predict poor prognosis and are called 'poor grade', while ...
Skoetz Nicole N Cochrane Haematological Malignancies Group, Department I of Internal Medicine, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne,Germany. - - 2012
Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) accounts for 25% of all leukaemias and is the most common lymphoid malignancy in Western countries. Standard treatment  includes mono- or poly-chemotherapies. Nowadays, monoclonal antibodies are added, especially alemtuzumab and rituximab. However, the impact of these agents remains unclear, as there are hints of an increased ...
Weissmann Norbert N Department of Internal Medicine II/V, University of Giessen Lung Center, Klinikstrasse 36, 35392 Giessen, Germany. - - 2012
Lung ischaemia-reperfusion-induced oedema (LIRE) is a life-threatening condition that causes pulmonary oedema induced by endothelial dysfunction. Here we show that lungs from mice lacking nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (Nox2(y/-)) or the classical transient receptor potential channel 6 (TRPC6(-/-)) are protected from LIR-induced oedema (LIRE). Generation of chimeric mice ...
Woods Bob B Dementia ServicesDevelopment CentreWales, Bangor University, Bangor, UK. - - 2012
Cognitive stimulation is an intervention for people with dementia which offers a range of enjoyable activities providing general stimulation for thinking, concentration and memory usually in a social setting, such as a small group. Its roots can be traced back to Reality Orientation (RO), which was developed in the late ...
Moniz Cook Esme D ED Clinical Psychology & Ageing, Institute of Rehabilitation,University of Hull, Hull,UK. - - 2012
Functional analysis (FA) for the management of challenging behaviour is a promising behavioural intervention that involves exploring the meaning or purpose of an individual's behaviour. It extends the 'ABC' approach of behavioural analysis, to overcome the restriction of having to derive a single explanatory hypothesis for the person's behaviour. It ...
Walshe Margaret M Clinical Speech and Language Studies,TrinityCollegeDublin,Dublin 2, Ireland. - - 2012
Drooling is a common problem for children with cerebral palsy (CP). This can be distressing for these children as well as for their parents and caregivers. The consequences of drooling include risk of social rejection, damp and soiled clothing, unpleasant odour, irritated chapped skin, mouth infections, dehydration, interference with speech, ...
Smyth Alan R AR Department of Child Health, School of Clinical Sciences & Nottingham Respiratory BRU, University of Nottingham, Nottingham,UK. - - 2012
People with cystic fibrosis, who are chronically colonised with the organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa, often require multiple courses of intravenous aminoglycoside antibiotics for the management of pulmonary exacerbations. The properties of aminoglycosides suggest that they could be given in higher doses less often. To assess the effectiveness and safety of once-daily ...
Chang Christina C CC Infectious Diseases Unit, The Alfred Hospital, Monash University, Prahran, Australia. - - 2012
Cough is often distressing for patients with pneumonia. Accordingly they often use over-the-counter (OTC) cough medications (mucolytics or cough suppressants). These might provide relief in reducing cough severity, but suppression of the cough mechanism might impede airway clearance and cause harm. To evaluate the efficacy of OTC cough medications as ...
Zhang Xinli X Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute, Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, UCLA and Orthopaedic Hospital Department of Orthopedic Surgery and the Orthopaedic Hospital Research Center, Los Angeles, California 90095, - - 2012
Nell-1, first identified by its overexpression in synostotic cranial sutures, is a novel osteoinductive growth and differentiation factor. To further define Nell-1's role in craniofacial patterning, we characterized defects of the ENU-induced Nell-1-deficient (END) mice, focusing on both intramembranous and endochondral cranial bones. Results showed that calvarial bones of neonatal ...
Koshkaryev Alexander A Center for Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Nanomedicine, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, - - 2012
Lysosomes are a promising therapeutic target for induction apoptosis in cancer cells due to lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) leading to leakage of hydrolytic enzymes, especially the cathepsins, into the cytoplasm. We hypothesized that with the modification of the ceramide-loaded liposomes with transferrin (Tf), we would achieve both tumor targeting and ...
Smith Caroline A CA Centre forComplementaryMedicine Research,University ofWestern Sydney, Penrith SouthDC, Australia. - - 2012
Many women would like to avoid pharmacological or invasive methods of pain management in labour, and this may contribute towards the popularity of complementary methods of pain management. This review examined currently available evidence supporting the use of manual healing methods including massage and reflexology for pain management in labour. ...
Griffin Xavier L XL Warwick Orthopaedics, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK. - - 2012
The morbidity and socioeconomic costs of fractures are considerable. The length of time to healing is an important factor in determining a patient's recovery after a fracture. Ultrasound may have a therapeutic role in reducing the time to union after fracture. To assess the effects of low intensity ultrasound (LIPUS), ...
Golder Su - - 2012
Background:  Search filters have been developed in MEDLINE and EMBASE to help overcome the challenges of searching electronic databases for information on adverse effects. However, little evaluation of their effectiveness has been carried out. Objectives:  To measure the sensitivity and precision of available adverse effects search filters in MEDLINE and ...
Zach Lisl - - 2012
Background:  The relationship between health information seeking, patient engagement and health literacy is not well understood. This is especially true in medically underserved populations, which are often viewed as having limited access to health information. Objective:  To improve communication between an urban health centre and the community it serves, a ...
Sameri Maryam Jafar - - 2011
The aim of this study was evaluation the effect of Gallic acid on movement disorders and pallidal electrical power in animal model of Parkinson's Disease (PD). PD is clinically characterized by development of motor disturbances, such as bradykinesia, resting tremors, rigidity and a later loss ofpostural reflexes. Oxidative stress is ...
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