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Ougrin Dennis - - 2012
Background:  Repeated self-harm in adolescents is common and associated with elevated psychopathology, risk of suicide, and demand for clinical services. Despite recent advances in the understanding and treatment of self-harm there have been few systematic reviews of the topic. Aims:  The main aim of this article is to review randomised ...
Hodgkins Paul - - 2012
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment options include pharmacological and nonpharmacological approaches. In North America, psychostimulants (amphetamine and methylphenidate) are considered first-line pharmacological treatments for patients (children, adolescents and adults) with ADHD. However, in the UK, National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines have placed short-acting d-amphetamine as a ...
Lachance Avery - - 2012
Several ethical concerns are central to the field of medical research. A sampling of these ethical conundrums include fraudulent data, publication bias, conflict of interest, IRB compliance, and confidentiality. In this article we attempt to highlight some of the components central to these areas of concern. In doing so we ...
Cibulskis Richard E - - 2012
Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the magnitude of selection bias incurred by measuring child survival intervention coverage at convenient sampling opportunities (child immunization contacts) is sufficiently small for the approach to be used as a management tool within country programs. Methods. We estimated the magnitude of selection ...
Mizukami Yusuke - - 2012
Tumor-derived signals systemically induce an angiogenic switch that allows cancer cells to survive and grow. However, the vascular network in tumors is not well organized and fails to meet metabolic needs to maintain tissue homeostasis, resulting in significant hypoxia. Among various tumors, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) typically develops in an ...
Nixon C A - - 2012
The aim of this comprehensive systematic review was to identify the most effective behavioural models and behaviour change strategies, underpinning preschool- and school-based interventions aimed at preventing obesity in 4-6-year-olds. Searching was conducted from April 1995 to April 2010 using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and The Cochrane Library. Epidemiological studies ...
Stienstra Deborah - - 2012
Objective:The purpose of this article is to identify how inclusive and accessible palliative care can be achieved for all, including those labelled as vulnerable populations.Method:Drawing on a review of existing literature as well the research of the Vulnerable Persons and End-of-Life New Emerging Team (VP-NET), this article reflects on what ...
Garg Amit - - 2012
There are a number of ethical considerations relevant to dermatology training that are worthy of dialogue. In this contribution, social networking, relationships with mentors, relationships with patients, and moonlighting are discussed with the goal of encouraging ongoing discourse and reflection on these and other ethical considerations relevant to dermatology training.
Lin Ming-Hwai - - 2012
Objective:Even though terminal cancer patients receive help from a hospice palliative care team, they have to suffer the pressure of death with deteriorating conditions. This study aims to evaluate the effect of art therapy for these terminal cancer patients.Method:The patients involved were terminal cancer patients who were under the care ...
Sanders Roy - - 2012
SUMMARY:: The articular surface of the posterior facet may be extremely difficult to reduce anatomically in a tongue-type calcaneal fracture because the fragment tends to translate when attempting the rotational component of the reduction. A new osteotomy that converts the tongue into a joint depression fragment to permit an accurate ...
Mayerle Julia - - 2012
The incidence of acute pancreatitis per 100 000 of population ranges from 5 to 80. Patients suffering from hemorrhagic-necrotizing pancreatitis die in 10-24% of cases. 80% of all cases of acute pancreatitis are etiologically linked to gallstone disease immoderate alcohol consumption. As of today no specific causal treatment for acute pancreatitis ...
Greenberg Robert D - - 2012
Conflicts of interest (COIs) exist when someone who has a fiduciary responsibility for another's welfare acts, or has the potential to act, in a manner inconsistent with their charge's best interests. COIs exist in all professions as well as in public service; however, in medicine, COIs pose a unique problem, ...
Asahina Kinji K Southern California Research Center for ALPD and Cirrhosis and Department of Pathology, Keck School of Medicine of University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-9141, USA. - - 2012
Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are recognized as a major player in liver fibrogenesis. Upon liver injury, HSCs differentiate into myofibroblasts and participate in progression of fibrosis and cirrhosis. Additional cell types such as resident liver fibroblasts/myofibroblasts or bone marrow cells are also known to generate myofibroblasts. One of the major ...
Babalola Olubukola - - 2012
Physicians often face tremendous pressures and incentives to publish, sometimes leading to a compromise of ethical standards, either consciously or unconsciously. From the vantage of ethical authorship, we discuss what constitutes authorship; avoidance of ghost authorship; plagiarism, as well as self-plagiarism and duplicate publication; falsification; and fabrication. Editors also face ...
Grabe Hilary M - - 2012
ABSTRACT: A 20-year-old man developed right homonymous hemianopia, hemiparesis, and hemisensory loss from deep cerebral venous thrombosis in the setting of high altitude. Approximately 3 months later, brain MRI showed encephalomalacia of the left optic tract and lateral geniculate nucleus, as well as signal abnormalities of the internal capsule and ...
Anand Abhijeet - - 2012
Background. Integrating delivery of nonvaccine interventions with childhood vaccinations has been suggested as a mechanism to accelerate progress toward Millennium Development Goals. Methods. Demographic health surveys from 28 sub-Saharan African countries were analyzed to determine potential coverage with 5 nonvaccine interventions that could be delivered to children, mothers, and families during routine ...
Maeda Masaki - - 2012
We have previously reported the efficacy and safety of autologous bone marrow cell infusion (ABMi) therapy for liver cirrhosis patients without hepatocellular carcinoma in a multicenter clinical trial. However, since liver cirrhosis is highly oncogenic, evaluation of the effects of ABMi on the mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis is of great importance. ...
Nethe A A Netherlands Institute for Health Promotion NIGZ, Woerden, The Netherlands. - - 2012
Obesity prevention efforts for school-aged children and adolescents are increasing in number. However, little has been done to address the problem in the preschool age. To address this age group, an evidence-based preschool programme on physical activity (PA) and nutrition is developed within the ToyBox project. Environmental influencing factors such ...
de la Monte Suzanne S Department of Pathology, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, - - 2012
Chronic alcohol exposure inhibits insulin and insulin-like growth factor signaling in the liver and brain by impairing the signaling cascade at multiple levels. These alterations produced by alcohol cause severe hepatic and central nervous system insulin resistance as the cells fail to adequately transmit signals downstream through Erk/mitogen-activated protein kinase ...
Liu Ziwen - - 2012
AKR1B10 (aldo-keto reductase 1B10) is overexpressed in liver and lung cancer, and plays a critical role in tumour development and progression through promoting lipogenesis and eliminating cytotoxic carbonyls. AKR1B10 is a secretory protein and potential tumour marker; however, little is known about the regulatory mechanism of AKR1B10 expression. The present ...
Ryman Tove K - - 2012
Background. Integration of routine vaccination and other maternal and child health services is becoming more common and the services being integrated more diverse. Yet knowledge gaps remain regarding community members and health workers acceptance, priorities, and concerns related to integration. Methods. Qualitative health worker interviews and community focus groups were conducted in ...
Ampofo Krow K Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, University of Utah Health Sciences Center, Salt Lake City, UT 84108, USA. - - 2012
In 2000, a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was licensed for use among US children. Many sites have since reported changes in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). We recognized an opportunity to describe the changes in epidemiology, clinical syndromes, and serotype distribution during a 14-year period including 4 years before vaccine ...
Bhargava Prerna - - 2012
Macrophages are key innate immune effector cells best known for their role as professional phagocytes, which also include neutrophils and dendritic cells. Recent evidence indicates that macrophages are also key players in metabolic homoeostasis. Macrophages can be found in many tissues, where they respond to metabolic cues and produce pro- ...
Gibson E L - - 2012
Strategies to reduce risk of obesity by influencing preschool children's eating behaviour are reviewed. The studies are placed in the context of relevant psychological processes, including inherited and acquired preferences, and behavioural traits, such as food neophobia, 'enjoyment of food' and 'satiety responsiveness'. These are important influences on how children ...
Rasheed Zeshaan A ZA Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21231, USA. - - 2012
Cancer stem cells (CSC) have been identified in a growing number of human malignancies. CSC are functionally defined by their ability to self-renew and recapitulate tumors in the ectopic setting, and a growing number of studies have shown that they display other functional characteristics, such as invasion and drug resistance. ...
Zhang Zheng - - 2012
Decompensated liver cirrhosis (LC), a life-threatening complication of chronic liver disease, is one of the major indications for liver transplantation. Recently, mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transfusion has been shown to lead to the regression of liver fibrosis in mice and humans. This study examined the safety and efficacy of umbilical ...
Briere Elizabeth C - - 2012
Integration of immunizations with hygiene interventions may improve use of both interventions. We interviewed 1361 intervention and 1139 comparison caregivers about hygiene practices and vaccination history, distributed water treatment and hygiene kits to caregivers during infant vaccination sessions in intervention clinics for 12 months, and conducted a followup survey of ...
Anderson Julia - - 2012
Although dermatology does not lead the list of specialties most commonly sued for malpractice, anyone who has been the recipient of a malpractice claim is often traumatized both personally and professionally. Every day dermatologists must address various ethical concerns that have legal implications. Herein, we chose to discuss the following ...
Inagaki Yutaka - - 2012
Based on the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying hepatic fibrogenesis, several kinds of approaches have been proposed to treat liver fibrosis. Among a number of growth factors and cytokines that regulate collagen metabolism, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β is the most potent factor to accelerate liver fibrosis by activating hepatic stellate ...
Iwaisako Keiko - - 2012
Chronic liver injury of many etiologies produces liver fibrosis and may eventually lead to the formation of cirrhosis. Fibrosis is part of a dynamic process associated with the continuous deposition and resorption of extracellular matrix, mainly fibrillar collagen. Studies of fibrogenesis conducted in many organs including the liver demonstrate that ...
Corradini Elena - - 2012
As the main iron storage site in the body and the main source of the iron-regulatory hormone, hepcidin, the liver plays a pivotal role in iron homeostasis. A variable degree of hepatic iron accumulation has long been recognized in a number of chronic liver diseases. Both alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis ...
Kojima Soichi - - 2012
Background and Aim:  Transglutaminase 2 (TG2), catalyzing crosslinking between lysine and glutamine residues, is involved in many liver diseases. We previously reported that TG2, induced in the nucleus of ethanol- or free fatty acids (FFAs)-treated hepatic cells, crosslinks and inactivates a transcription factor Sp1, leading to reduced expression of c-Met ...
Maloney Mary E - - 2012
Mentorship has enhanced many careers, and it can be important in both job satisfaction and enjoyment; however, mentorships are complex human relationships and, as such, can be successful or can fail to be successful. This contribution explores some of the factors that facilitate both the success or failure of ethical ...
Tsugane Shoichiro - - 2012
The health impact of alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking and obesity differs between Asian and Western countries. The epidemiology of cancer and death related to these lifestyles are described in this article. In Japan, heavy alcohol drinking and cigarette smoking are rather high in men. While there is a worldwide anti-smoking ...
Gukovsky Ilya I Southern California Research Centers for Alcoholic Liver and Pancreatic Diseases and Cirrhosis, VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, and University of California at Los Angeles, California 90073, - - 2012
Recent findings from our group, obtained on experimental in vivo and ex vivo models of pancreatitis, reveal that this disease causes a profound dysfunction of key cellular organelles, lysosomes and mitochondria. We found that autophagy, the main cellular degradative, lysosome-driven process, is activated but also impaired in acute pancreatitis because ...
Aghajan Mariam M Laboratory of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, California 92093, - - 2012
Liver and pancreatic cancers are both highly lethal diseases with limited to no therapeutic options for patients. Recent studies suggest that deregulated autophagy plays a role in the pathogenesis of these diseases by perturbing cellular homeostasis and laying the foundation for disease development. While accumulation of p62 upon impaired autophagy ...
Wallace Aaron - - 2012
Background. Immunization services in developing countries are increasingly used as platforms for delivery of other health interventions. A challenge for scaling up interventions on existing platforms is insufficient resources allocated to the integrated platform with the risk of overburdening a health worker. Determining the length of time to deliver priority interventions ...
Marchington Katie L - - 2012
Objective:Despite the high prevalence of delirium in palliative care settings, this diagnosis is frequently missed, particularly in patients with hypoactive delirium. These patients are also commonly misdiagnosed with depression because of the overlap in symptoms between the two diagnoses. Failure to promptly diagnose delirium can have significant ramifications in terms ...
Perlis Clifford - - 2012
Self-regulating professions have historically used codes of conduct and codes of ethics to clarify the responsibilities of members to those they serve and to one another. These codes play an important role in safeguarding the professions' autonomy and in articulating standards for the profession. In medicine, many individual medical specialty ...
Elliott Marc N - - 2012
: Little is known about the healthcare experiences of Medicare beneficiaries in Puerto Rico. : We compare the experiences of elderly Medicare beneficiaries in Puerto Rico with their English-preferring and Spanish-preferring Medicare counterparts in the U.S. mainland. : Linear regression models compared mean Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems ...
Lee Young-Sun - - 2012
Quiescent hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in healthy liver store 80% of total liver retinols and release them depending on the extracellular retinol status. However, HSCs activated by liver injury lose their retinols and produce a considerable amount of extracellular matrix, subsequently leading to liver fibrosis. Emerging evidence suggests that retinols ...
Dassanayake Tharaka L - - 2012
Background: Use of psychotropic drugs is known to impair driving and increase the risk of road traffic accidents. They are also the most common drugs taken in overdose in hospital-treated episodes of self-poisoning. Most patients who take psychotropic drug overdoses are discharged within 48 hours, while they still have possible ...
Slade Karren L - - 2012
The ethics of clinical trials have been the subject of numerous previous publications and mandates that are used by institutional review boards on an everyday basis. The protection of human rights and the sanctity of informed consent are critical components of clinical research monitored by human subjects investigation committees throughout ...
Pandol Stephen - - 2012
There are approximately 277,000 new cases of pancreatic cancer and 266,000 deaths from pancreatic cancer annually, indicating a mortality rate of 96% of the cases diagnosed. Because of the ineffectiveness of therapies, a major emphasis needs to be placed on prevention. This paper reviews the epidemiology and risk factors for ...
Jordan Douglas B - - 2012
Conversion of plant cell walls to ethanol constitutes second generation bioethanol production. The process consists of several steps: biomass selection/genetic modification, physiochemical pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, fermentation and separation. Ultimately, it is desirable to combine as many of the biochemical steps as possible in a single organism to achieve CBP (consolidated ...
Wei Stanley C - - 2012
Background. The Expanded Program on Immunization Contact Method (EPI-CM) is a proposed monitoring and program management tool for developing countries. The method involves health workers tallying responses to questions about health behaviors during routine immunizations and providing targeted counseling. We evaluated whether asking caretakers about health behaviors during EPI visits led ...
Shingadia Delane - - 2012
Childhood tuberculosis accounts for a significant proportion of the global tuberculosis disease burden. However, tuberculosis in children is difficult to diagnose, because disease tends to be paucibacillary and sputum samples are often not easy to obtain. The diagnosis of tuberculosis in children is traditionally based on chest radiography, tuberculin skin ...
Reid Erika E - - 2012
The use of drug samples in a dermatology clinic is controversial. Drug samples are associated with influencing physician prescribing patterns often toward costlier drugs, increasing health care costs, increasing waste, inducing potential conflicts of interest, and decreasing the quality of patient education. On the other hand, they have the potential ...
Mirza Imran Raza - - 2012
Somalia, one of the most unstable countries in the world, has been without a permanent government for nearly 2 decades. With a health system in total disarray, coverage of basic health interventions remains low and, maternal and child mortality is among the highest in the world. Health partners jointly outlined ...
Horie Yoshinori - - 2012
Background and Aim:  Severe alcoholic hepatitis (SAH) is an inflammatory response with multiple morbidity factors like leucocytosis, hepatomegaly, renal failure, hepatic encephalopathy, endotoxemia, and a high mortality rate. Identifying therapeutic interventions that can improve prognosis is the goal of research. Methods:  Questionnaires were sent to 1234 medical institutions asking for ...
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