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Clingerman Karen J - - 2012
Body condition scoring (BCS) is a subjective semiquantitative method of assessing body fat and muscle. Scoring systems use a scale in which the midrange represents optimal body condition, lower values represent lean to emaciated conditions, and higher values indicate excessive body fat. A valid BCS system is clearly described, relevant ...
Matsumiya Lynn C - - 2012
Postoperative pain management in animals is complicated greatly by the inability to recognize pain. As a result, the choice of analgesics and their doses has been based on extrapolation from greatly differing pain models or the use of measures with unclear relevance to pain. We recently developed the Mouse Grimace ...
Ismaiel Nada M - - 2012
Remifentanil is a potent synthetic opioid with sedative effects. Intravenous remifentanil provides deep sedation and analgesia in laboratory animals during experimental procedures. We hypothesized that remifentanil would provide effective analgosedation during assisted mechanical ventilation without affecting respiratory mechanics in rats. Five male Sprague- Dawley rats (weight, 400 to 450 g) ...
Valentine Helen - - 2012
CO(2) administration is a common euthanasia method for research mice, yet questions remain regarding whether CO(2) euthanasia is associated with pain and stress. Here we assessed whether premedication with acepromazine, midazolam, or anesthetic induction with isoflurane altered behavioral and physiologic parameters that may reflect pain or stress during CO(2) euthanasia. ...
Leyden Katrina N - - 2012
A valid and reliable scale for assessing level of sedation would facilitate appropriate sedation management in a porcine intensive care unit (ICU) model. The Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS) is used often for human ICU patients. The purpose of this study was to estimate the content validity of the modified RASS ...
Jacobsen Kirsten R - - 2012
Recognition of pain and stress is a common challenge when working with laboratory mice. The aim of the current study was to identify noninvasive parameters to assess the severity and duration of possible pain and stress after vasectomy in BALB/c mice. Mice underwent isoflurane anesthesia with or without vasectomy. Body ...
Robinson Mary A - - 2012
The rat spinal-cord-injury (SCI) model is widely used to study the pathologic mechanisms that contribute to sensory and motor dysfunction in humans. This model is thought to mimic many of the negative outcomes experienced by humans after spinal contusion injury. We theorized that manual bladder expression contributed to the kidney ...
Ascher Jill M - - 2012
Intracoelomic (IC) injection of xylazine was evaluated as a chemical euthanasia method for Anolis lizards (Anolis carolinensis or Anolis distichus). Lizards were allocated into 5 groups of 10 animals each. Each group was euthanized by one of these methods: 10 mg xylazine (100 mg/mL) IC; 10 mg xylazine and 0.5 ...
Summers Laura - - 2012
Body condition scoring (BCS) is a subjective semiquantitative method of assessing body fat and muscle by palpation of key anatomic features. A previously published BCS system for rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) uses a scale comprising both whole and half units, in which the midrange represents optimal body condition (3.0), lower ...
Liang Te-Hsin - - 2012
The digital divide usually refers to access or usage, but some studies have identified two other divides: awareness and demand (want). Given that the hierarchical stages of the innovation adoption process of a customer are interrelated, it is necessary and meaningful to analyze the digital divide in eHealth services through ...
Marreiros Humberto - - 2012
The prevalence and morbidity associated with osteoporosis and fractures in patients with spina bifida (SB) highlight the importance of osteoporosis prevention and treatment in early childhood; however, the issue has received little attention. The method for the selection of appropriate patients for drug treatment has not been clarified. To review ...
Tanhoffer Ricardo A - - 2012
To compare different methods of assessing energy expenditure (EE) and physical activity (PA) in people with spinal cord injury (SCI) under community-dwelling conditions. A reference standard encompassing the doubly labelled water (DLW) technique, heart rate monitoring (FLEX-HR), a multi-sensor armband (SenseWear Armband (SWA)), and two PA recall questionnaires were employed ...
Chiodo Anthony E - - 2012
Context/objective: To demonstrate the utility of intrathecal baclofen in the treatment of secondary myoclonus of spinal origin. Case series. University medical center. Two patients with spinal myoclonus who required the use of an assistive device because of difficulty walking resulting in falls. Intrathecal baclofen management. Symptom management and mobility function. ...
Dziallas P - - 2012
Etiologic diagnosis of a retrobulbar process is essential for the initiation of a causative therapy. Penetrating foreign bodies and tooth root abscesses, but also neoplastic processes have to be considered as a differential diagnosis for a retrobulbar swelling. The objective of this case report of a tiger with a retrobulbar ...
de la Monte Suzanne M - - 2012
Alzheimer's disease [AD] is the most common cause of dementia in North America. Despite 30+ years of intense investigation, the field lacks consensus regarding the etiology and pathogenesis of sporadic AD, and therefore we still do not know the best strategies for treating and preventing this debilitating and costly disease. ...
Meyburgh D - - 2012
To assess the relationships between progression of target-organ damage and cardiovascular, cortisol and coping responses in black urban Africans. Urban black African gender groups (n = 200) aged 21-62 years from the Sympathetic Activity and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Africans study were stratified into normotensive and hypertensive groups. Resting and ...
Akintunde A A - - 2012
Various conventional methods are used for functional evaluation and risk stratification in heart failure. A combined index of global myocardial performance called the Tei index has been described. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation of the Tei index with other conventional indices of systolic and diastolic ...
Tayal D - - 2012
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is emerging as the biggest killer of the 21st century. A number of theories have been postulated to explain the aetiology of atherosclerosis. The present study attempts to elucidate the interaction, if any, between inflammation, oxidative stress and dyslipidaemia in CAD. A total of 753 patients ...
Oguanobi N I - - 2012
There are few studies to be found in the literature on ankle-brachial index in sickle cell disease. The aim of this study was to compare ankle-brachial index of steadystate adult sickle cell anaemia patients with that of normal controls. A descriptive cross-sectional study of 62 sickle cell anaemia patients and ...
Mawoza T - - 2012
Sclerocarya birrea (Anacardiaceae) is traditionally used for treating hypertension. The pharmacological effects of S birrea leaf aqueous extract (SBE) on rabbit and rat vascular smooth muscles were investigated in this study. Fresh S birrea leaves (1 kg) were air dried at 26 ± 1°C, milled, macerated in 2.5 l of ...
Matsha T E - - 2012
The aim of this pilot study was to assess the 30-year risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the South Africa population of mixed-ancestry in individuals with non-diabetic hyperglycaemia, and undiagnosed and self-reported diabetes. Participants were drawn from an urban community of the Bellville South suburb of Cape Town. In total, ...
Salehi I - - 2012
Oxidative stress is a key component of atherosclerosis. It has been suggested that amlodipine inhibits oxidative stress. In this study, we evaluated the effects of amlodipine on the total antioxidant capacity of heart tissue and blood in 36 control and cholesterol-fed male New Zealand white rabbits. The rabbits were divided ...
Guo X - - 2012
Prehypertension appears to be a precursor of hypertension and has been recognised as a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Recognition of prehypertension provides important opportunities for preventing hypertension and CVD. We aimed to investigate the worldwide prevalence and heterogeneity of prehypertension. We performed a meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies ...
Karaca M - - 2012
Postoperative atrial fibrillation is common after cardiac surgery. In this study, we aimed to investigate the value of interatrial conduction time for the prediction of early postoperative atrial fibrillation, using intra-operative transoesophageal echocardiography. A total of 65 patients undergoing cardiac surgery in our hospital between January and March 2007 were ...
Feldblum Paul J - - 2012
The primary objective was to measure HIV incidence in two prospective cohorts of HIV-negative women. Secondary objectives included measuring pregnancy rates and participant retention rates. Cross-sectional HIV screening of women selected for higher risk behaviours, with a subsequent prospective study of uninfected women, followed monthly for up to 6 months. ...
Dobler Claudia Caroline - - 2012
Previous studies that have found an increased risk for tuberculosis (TB) in people with diabetes mellitus (DM) have been conducted in segments of the population and have not adjusted for important potential confounders. We sought to determine the RR for TB in the presence of DM in a national population ...
Basu Trinanjan T Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Parel, Mumbai 400012, - - 2012
Radiotherapy-induced damage in the oral mucosa is the result of the deleterious effects of radiation, not only on the oral mucosa itself but also on the skin, adjacent salivary glands, bone, dentition, and masticatory apparatus. From basic skin care to dental and oral health maintenance, several ointments and lotions, oral ...
Kumar Pawan P Laboratory of Molecular Immunology and Immunotherapy, Blood Research - - 2012
Influenza virus is a respiratory pathogen that causes a high degree of morbidity and mortality every year in multiple parts of the world. Therefore, precise diagnosis of the infecting strain and rapid high-throughput screening of vast numbers of clinical samples is paramount to control the spread of pandemic infections. Current ...
Kim Janice J JJ Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute, Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster - - 2012
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) encompasses a range of intestinal pathologies, the most common of which are ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's Disease (CD). Both UC and CD, when present in the colon, generate a similar symptom profile which can include diarrhea, rectal bleeding, abdominal pain, and weight loss.(1) Although the ...
AbouAlaiwi Wissam A WA Department of Pharmacology, University of Toledo, College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ohio, - - 2012
Conventional method to identify and classify individual chromosomes depends on the unique banding pattern of each chromosome in a specific species being analyzed (1, 2). This classical banding technique, however, is not reliable in identifying complex chromosomal aberrations such as those associated with cancer. To overcome the limitations of the ...
Wong Gloria G Department of Psychiatry, University of Alberta, - - 2012
Emotions can impact cognition by exerting both enhancing (e.g., better memory for emotional events) and impairing (e.g., increased emotional distractibility) effects (reviewed in (1)). Complementing our recent protocol (2) describing a method that allows investigation of the neural correlates of the memory-enhancing effect of emotion (see also (1, 3-5)), here ...
Li Jian J Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington D.C., - - 2012
Carbon nanostructures such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and graphene attract a deluge of interest of scholars nowadays due to their very promising application for molecular sensors, field effect transistor and super thin and flexible electronic devices(1-4). Anodic arc discharge supported by the erosion of the anode material is one ...
Chan Samantha C W SC ARTORG Center for Biomedical Engineering, University of Bern, - - 2012
The intervertebral disc (IVD) is the joint of the spine connecting vertebra to vertebra. It functions to transmit loading of the spine and give flexibility to the spine. It composes of three compartments: the innermost nucleus pulposus (NP) encompassing by the annulus fibrosus (AF), and two cartilaginous endplates connecting the ...
Islam Mohammed M MM Department of Pharmacology, University of Medicine and Dentistry, New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical - - 2012
Chicken embryonic retina is an excellent tool to study retinal development in higher vertebrates. Because of large size and external development, it is comparatively very easy to manipulate the chick embryonic retina using recombinant DNA/RNA technology. Electroporation of DNA/RNA constructs into the embryonic retina have a great advantage to study ...
Gaynor Martin M Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, - - 2012
UK governments of all political colours have sought to improve productivity in health care by introducing pro-competitive reforms in the National Health Service (NHS) during the last two decades. The first wave of reform operated from 1991 to 1997. The second wave was introduced in England only in the mid ...
Tang Lin L Department of Comparative Biology and Experimental Medicine, University of - - 2012
Germ cell transplantation was developed by Dr. Ralph Brinster and colleagues at the University of Pennsylvania in 1994(1,2). These ground-breaking studies showed that microinjection of germ cells from fertile donor mice into the seminiferous tubules of infertile recipient mice results in donor-derived spermatogenesis and sperm production by the recipient animal(2). ...
Ji Zhiying Z Genes and Environment Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, - - 2012
Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a technique that allows specific DNA sequences to be detected on metaphase or interphase chromosomes in cell nuclei(1). The technique uses DNA probes with unique sequences that hybridize to whole chromosomes or specific chromosomal regions, and serves as a powerful adjunct to classic cytogenetics. ...
Bhide S A SA Head and Neck Unit, Royal Marsden Hospital, SW3 6JJ London, United Kingdom. - - 2012
It is increasingly being recognized that oral cavity cancer incidences are rising globally. Furthermore, these tumors represent a high risk group of tumors comparative to other head and neck tumor sub-sites and have a high preponderance of occult nodal metastases. Surgery alone leads to excellent outcomes in early stage disease. ...
Cai Huan H Metabolism Unit, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, MD 21224, - - 2012
Alzheimer's disease and other related neurodegenerative diseases are highly debilitating disorders that affect millions of people worldwide. Efforts towards developing effective treatments for these disorders have shown limited efficacy at best, with no true cure to this day being present. Recent work, both clinical and experimental, indicates that many neurodegenerative ...
El Khoury A C - - 2012
Summary.  There are approximately 100 drugs in development to treat hepatitis C. Over the next decade, a number of new therapies will become available. A good understanding of the cost of hepatitis C sequelae is important for assessing the value of new treatments. The objective of this study was to ...
Llinás Guillermo Albrieu - - 2011
Based on sequence analysis of the mitochondrial gene ND4, we determined the presence in Argentina of 3 haplotypes representing different Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti lineages previously identified in other countries of the Americas, Africa, and Asia. Haplotype 17, the most frequent in Argentina, was previously detected in Brazil. Haplotype 7, restricted ...
Canela-Soler Jaume - - 2011
The aim of this study is to analyze biomedical publications on health surveys (HS) in the Catalan territory from documents published in various bibliographic databases to 2010. Analysis of 1,287 HS documents on 3 bibliographic sources of information relating to Catalonia, between 1991 and 2010. Scientific papers on HS in ...
Benson Al B AB - - 2011
The treatment for patients with locally advanced, resectable rectal cancer has evolved over the years. Various combinations and sequences of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and total mesorectal excision (TME)-based surgery are the mainstay of current therapy. Preoperative combined chemoradiation, followed by surgery, is now the preferred treatment strategy, with the majority ...
Gholizadeh Ashraf - - 2011
Identification of the molecular structure and novel biophysiological functions of plant cystatins or phytocystatins is of great interest in the field of molecular biology. The important requirements for these are the efficient production, purification and correctly folded forms of these proteins. We report here the cloning, easy expression and characterization ...
Yonamine Fabio Yamasato - - 2011
Fabry disease is an X-linked disease of glycosphingolipid (GL) metabolism. The accumulation of GL in tissues can affect multiple organ systems. Initial symptoms includes episodes of severe pain in the extremities, cornea verticillata and skin lesions. In late stages, kidney, heart and brain can be involved. This report attempts for ...
Yamauchi Takeo - - 2011
During a mosquito collection, a female of the pigeon louse fly, Pseudolynchia canariensis (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), was collected by a mosquito trap baited with dry ice in Ishigaki-jima, Yaeyama Islands, Japan. This is the 1st record of P. canariensis from Yaeyama Islands.
Yabiku Simone Tiemi - - 2011
To evaluate the efficacy and the toxicity of 0.15% ganciclovir gel in the treatment of adenoviral conjunctivitis and in preventing ocular complications after adenoviral conjunctivitis, such as corneal infiltrates and pseudomembranes. Double blind, interventional and randomized clinical trial. Thirty-three patients with clinical diagnosis of adenoviral conjunctivitis with onset of symptoms ...
Davison Karen M - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the nutrient intakes of people with mood disorders. Method: A cross-sectional survey using 3-day food records was carried out in 97 adults with bipolar or major depressive disorder to compare nutrient intakes with Dietary Reference Intakes and British Columbia Nutrition Survey ...
Dickstein Rian J - - 2011
Bladder cancer is a heterogeneous disease that carries a significant risk of progression and lethality. Radical cystectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection remains the predominant treatment for patients with muscle-invasive disease and offers the best chance of long-term disease control. However, radical surgery is insufficient in patients with advanced-stage disease. ...
Wang Tianhu - - 2011
The characteristics of the interaction between reserpine and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were studied by fluorescence, UV-vis absorption and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Spectroscopic analysis revealed that fluorescence quenching of BSA by reserpine was through a static quenching procedure. The binding constant K(A) of reserpine with BSA at 293, ...
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