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Widman Laura L Division of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 130 Mason Farm Road, CB# 7030, Chapel Hill, NC 27516, USA. - - 2013
To understand sexual decision-making processes among people living with HIV, we compared safer sex self-efficacy, condom attitudes, sexual beliefs, and rates of unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse with at-risk partners (UAVI-AR) in the past 3 months among 476 people living with HIV: 185 men who have sex with men (MSM), ...
Wu L - - 2013
Narrow-band imaging (NBI) is a novel imaging technology that makes the superficial vasculature of gastrointestinal mucosa visible. However, the real accuracy for the differentiation of neoplastic from non-neoplastic polyps by NBI for the colorectum is still unknown. A meta-analysis was carried out of studies which assessed the precision of NBI ...
Foucan Lydia - - 2012
Vitamin D (vitD) insufficiency is common in end-stage renal disease. Seasonal and ethnic differences in vitD status have been reported previously. We hypothesized that vitD status in Afro-Caribbean patients on hemodialysis (HD) living in a country with a constant sunny climate would be better than that in African-American HD patients ...
El-Gazzaz G - - 2012
The role of biological therapy in perianal fistulas associated with Crohn's disease (CD) is uncertain as available data are confused and conflicting. In order to provide some clarity to the issue we have examined a large cohort of patients with perianal fistulas and CD and stratified them according to use ...
Rossios C - - 2012
Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) show a poor response to corticosteroids, which has been linked to oxidative stress. Here we show that the long-acting β(2) -agonist formoterol (FM) reversed corticosteroid insensitivity under oxidative stress via inhibition of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) signalling. Responsiveness to corticosteroids dexamethasone (Dex), budesonide (Bud) and ...
Im Hee-Jeong HJ Department of Biochemistry, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA. - - 2012
The natural phytoestrogen resveratrol (RSV) may have therapeutic potential for arthritic conditions. RSV is chondroprotective for articular cartilage in rabbit models for arthritis, but its biological effects on human articular cartilage and chondrosarcoma cells are unknown. Effects of RSV on human articular cartilage homeostasis were studied by assessing production of ...
Delbue Serena S Fondazione Ettore Sansavini, Health Science Foundation, Lugo, Ravenna, - - 2012
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a severe disease of the central nervous system (CNS), caused by infection with the Polyomavirus JC virus (JCV). Because there are no known treatments or prognostic factors, we performed a long-term study focusing mainly on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from PML patients to describe the ...
Naqvi Afsar Raza - - 2012
microRNAs (miRNAs), a recently discovered class of small RNAs, are endogenously transcribed non-coding RNAs that are known to control diverse developmental processes and defense responses. They regulate these pathways by fine-tuning the levels of transcripts to which they bind and cause their cleavage or translation repression. Several studies on the ...
Nickell Melissa D MD Department of Physiology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40536-0298, - - 2012
The continuous replacement of neurons in the olfactory epithelium provides an advantageous model for investigating neuronal differentiation and maturation. By calculating the relative enrichment of every mRNA detected in samples of mature mouse olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), immature OSNs, and the residual population of neighboring cell types, and then comparing ...
Rosser B R Simon BR HIV/STI Intervention and Prevention Program, Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota School of Public Health, Minneapolis, 55454, USA. - - 2012
Although research has been conducted over the last half century to test the hypothesis that pornography, or sexually explicit media (SEM), influences behavior, information regarding usage and its effect on men who have sex with men (MSM) is limited. It is important for researchers studying online risk factors for HIV ...
Lim Keng Gat - - 2012
Sphingosine kinase 1 catalyses formation of the bioactive lipid, sphingosine 1-phosphate, which protects cancer cells from apoptosis. Therefore, sphingosine kinase 1 is a novel target for intervention with anti-cancer agents. We have assessed the effect of the anti-cancer agent, resveratrol and its dimers (ampelopsin A and balanocarpol) on sphingosine kinase ...
Fougerat A - - 2012
Vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) migration within the arterial wall is a crucial event in atherogenesis and restenosis. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1/CC-chemokine receptor 2 (MCP-1/CCR2) signalling is involved in SMC migration processes but the molecular mechanisms have not been well characterized. We investigated the role of PI3Kγ in SMC migration induced ...
Chuang Jing-Yuan - - 2012
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has a striking tendency to migrate and metastasize. Cysteine-rich 61 (Cyr61), from the CCN gene family, is a secreted and matrix-associated protein, which is involved in many cellular activities such as growth and differentiation. However, the effects of Cyr61 on human OSCC cells are largely ...
Uitdehaag Joost C M - - 2012
To establish the druggability of a target, genetic validation needs to be supplemented with pharmacological validation. Pharmacological studies, especially in the kinase field, are hampered by the fact that many reference inhibitors are not fully selective for one target. Fortunately, the initial trickle of selective inhibitors released in the public ...
Yamamoto Tomomi - - 2012
Although naturally occurring polyamines are indispensable for a variety of cellular events in eukaryotic cells, little attention has been paid to their physiological and pathological significance in bone remodelling to date. In this study, we evaluated the pharmacological properties of several natural polyamines on the functionality and integrity of bone ...
O'Brien F E - - 2012
Recent studies indicate that efflux of antidepressants by the multidrug resistance transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) may contribute to treatment-resistant depression (TRD) by limiting intracerebral antidepressant concentrations. In addition, clinical experience shows that adjunctive treatment with the P-gp inhibitor verapamil may improve the clinical outcome in TRD. ...
Watt Gordon B - - 2012
Glucocorticoids appear to control Na⁺ absorption in pulmonary epithelial cells via a mechanism dependent upon serum and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1), a kinase that allows control over the surface abundance of epithelial Na⁺ channel subunits (α-, β- and γ-ENaC). However, not all data support this model and the present study ...
Chadha Preet S - - 2012
The aim of this study was to characterize the functional impact of KCNQ1-encoded voltage-dependent potassium channels (K(v)7.1) in the vasculature. Mesenteric arteries, intrapulmonary arteries and thoracic aortae were isolated from adult rats. K(v)7.1 channel expression was established by fluorescence immunocytochemistry. Wire myography determined functionality of these channels in response to ...
Spijkers Léon J A - - 2012
FTY720 (Fingolimod) is a recently approved orally administered drug for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Phase II and III clinical trials have demonstrated that this drug modestly increases BP. We previously showed that inhibition of sphingosine kinase increases vascular tone and BP in hypertensive, but not normotensive rats. Since FTY720 ...
Maekawa Takashi - - 2012
The vasomodulating actions of 5-HT in vein grafts, and the underlying mechanisms, remain to be fully clarified. Here, we characterized the actions by which 5-HT affects electrical and mechanical activities in rabbit autologous jugular vein grafts. Smooth muscle cell (SMC) membrane potential and isometric tension were measured in vein grafts ...
Marlatt Michael W - - 2012
Age-related memory loss is considered to commence at middle-age and coincides with reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis and neurotrophin levels. Consistent physical activity at midlife may preserve brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, new cell genesis, and learning. In the present study, 9-month-old female C57Bl/6J mice were housed with or without a ...
Valenti Claudio - - 2012
Bradykinin, through the kinin B₂ receptor, is involved in inflammatory processes related to arthropathies. B₂ receptor antagonists inhibited carrageenan-induced arthritis in rats in synergy with anti-inflammatory steroids. The mechanism(s) underlying this drug interaction was investigated. Drugs inhibiting inflammatory mediators released by carrageenan were injected, alone or in combination, into the ...
van de Wetering Gijs - - 2012
Cost-effectiveness analysis as a means to evaluate medical innovations has become well accepted in the UK and several other Western countries. An important assumption underlying this method is that costs and effects are constant over time. In reality, however, and especially in the short run, variations in costs and effects ...
Kummer Nicolas T NT Department of Microbiology & Immunology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York 10595, - - 2012
Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5) expression and activity has been implicated in tumor pathogenesis, yet its role in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has not been characterized. ALOX5 protein and mRNA were upregulated in PTC compared to matched, normal thyroid tissue, and ALOX5 expression correlated with invasive tumor histopathology. Evidence suggests that PTC ...
Arany Szilvia S Center for Oral Biology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York 14642, USA. - - 2012
A critical issue in the management of head and neck tumors is radioprotection of the salivary glands. We have investigated whether siRNA-mediated gene knock down of pro-apoptotic mediators can reduce radiation-induced cellular apoptosis in salivary gland cells in vitro. We used novel, pH-responsive nanoparticles to deliver functionally active siRNAs into ...
Mbisa Jean L - - 2012
In the late 1980s an HIV-1 epidemic emerged in Romania that was dominated by subtype F1. The main route of infection is believed to be parenteral transmission in children. We sequenced partial pol coding regions of 70 subtype F1 samples from children and adolescents from the PENTA-EPPICC network of which ...
Amin Rada - - 2012
Class switching and plasma cell differentiation occur at a high level within all mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues. The different classes of membrane immunoglobulin heavy chains are associated with the Igα/Igβ heterodimer within the B-cell receptor (BCR). Whether BCR isotypes convey specific signals adapted to the corresponding differentiation stages remains debated but ...
Colebrook E H EH Department of Disease and Stress Biology, John Innes Centre, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, Norfolk, NR4 7UH, UK. - - 2012
Inducible resistance responses play a central role in the defense of plants against pathogen attack. Acquired resistance (AR) is induced alongside defense toward primary attack, providing broad-spectrum protection against subsequent pathogen challenge. The localization and molecular basis of AR in cereals is poorly understood, in contrast with the well-characterized systemic ...
Hou Tim Y TY Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, - - 2012
n-3 PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids), i.e. DHA (docosahexaenoic acid), found in fish oil, exhibit anti-inflammatory properties; however, the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Since PtdIns(4,5)P2 resides in raft domains and DHA can alter the size of rafts, we hypothesized that PtdIns(4,5)P2 and downstream actin remodelling are perturbed by the incorporation of ...
Wang Yong Y Department of Transplant/Surgery, University of Illinois at Chicago, 840 South Wood Street, Clinical Sciences Building, Suite 402, Chicago, IL 60612, - - 2012
Reliable long-term cell culture in microfluidic system is limited by air bubble formation and accumulation. In this study, we developed a bubble removal system capable of both trapping and discharging air bubbles in a consistent and reliable manner. Combined with PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) hydrophilic surface treatment and vacuum filling, a microfluidic ...
Verhoef T I TI Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Clinical Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciuences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the - - 2012
The required acenocoumarol dose and the risk of underanticoagulation and overanticoagulation are associated with the CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes. However, the duration of the effects of these genes on anticoagulation is not yet known. In the present study, the effects of these polymorphisms on the risk of underanticoagulation and overanticoagulation ...
Sarr D D Department of Infectious Diseases, Center for Tropical and Emerging Global Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, - - 2012
The molecular mechanisms that underlie poor birth outcomes in malaria during pregnancy remain poorly defined. To assess the role of host immune responses, mice known to respond differentially to Plasmodium chabaudi AS infection were studied. Following infection at day 0 of pregnancy, A/J mice developed significantly higher parasitemia than C57BL/6 ...
Fernández-García Aurora - - 2012
The HIV-1 epidemic in Russia has been insufficiently studied, with only 11 complete genome sequences from this country currently available, only three of which are of the locally predominant genetic form, the former Soviet Union (FSU) subtype A variant (A(FSU)). Here we analyze 10 newly derived A(FSU) near full-length genome ...
Manasa Justen J Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, Doris Duke Medical Research Institute, Nelson Mandela School of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South - - 2012
HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR) could reverse the gains of antiretroviral rollout. To ensure that current first-line therapies remain effective, TDR levels in recently infected treatment-naive patients need to be monitored. A literature review and data mining exercise was carried out to determine the temporal trends in TDR in South ...
Benavides Omar M - - 2012
Amniotic fluid holds great promise as a stem cell source, especially in neonatal applications where autologous cells can be isolated and used. This study examined chemical-mediated differentiation of amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (AFSC) into endothelial cells and verified the function of AFSC-derived endothelial cells (AFSC-EC). AFSC were isolated from amniotic ...
Morel Jorge G - - 2012
In this article, we consider several study designs that arise in practice, which are variations of standard crossover designs. Often, they may result from modifications made to a standard crossover design due to practical considerations. Characteristic features of the studies we are concerned with are (a) treatments consist of external ...
Wunder Christina - - 2012
For rare diseases, standard treatments are often not available and essential study parameters are difficult or impossible to obtain. Therefore, designs of clinical trials for these diseases are often based on little information. Adaptive designs allow such trials to be started and to gain information during the study. Motivated by ...
Hirakawa Akihiro - - 2012
When identifying the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in microarray data, we often observe heteroscedasticity between groups and dependence among genes. Incorporating these factors is necessary for sample size calculation in microarray experiments. A penalized t-statistic is widely used to improve the identifiability of DEGs. We develop a formula to calculate ...
Spitale Alessandra - - 2012
Preoperative radiotherapy (RT) followed by surgery is widely accepted in the treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). This study aimed to estimate at the population-based level the impact of preoperative RT on overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) in LARCs diagnosed in Southern Switzerland between 1996 and 2007. ...
Liu Kenneth - - 2012
Although adaptive trials have become popular, little research has been done to investigate the effect of missing data in adaptive trials. We consider three different types of missing data mechanisms-missing completely at random (MCAR), missing at random (MAR), and missing not at random (MNAR)-and introduce the "mixture missing mechanism" (MMM) ...
Glomb Patricia - - 2012
In clinical development, thorough QT interval/corrected QT interval (QT/QTc) studies are performed to demonstrate that new investigational drugs do not change cardiac repolarization. In addition to the analysis recommended by ICH E14, exposure-response modeling has recently gained increased scientific attention. A direct concentration-QTc relationship is usually assumed with this pharmacokinetics ...
Primas Helga - - 2012
BRCA mutation carriers are at high risk of developing ovarian cancer. Ovarian malignancies are usually identified at an advanced stage with poor prognosis, attributed to inadequate options of early detection. Because of its risk-reducing effect of nearly 96%, prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy is still the leading option for risk-reduction in women with ...
Fleishman Alex N - - 2012
In a study designed to establish the safety of a marketed drug, interim analyses performed to detect harm can protect trial participants and the wider public before the final analysis occurs. Monitoring for harm within a safety study is different from monitoring for benefit, so techniques commonly used in an ...
Demirtas Hakan - - 2012
Situations in which multiple outcomes and predictors of different distributional types are collected are becoming increasingly common in biopharmaceutical practice, and joint modeling of mixed types has been gaining popularity in recent years. Evaluation of various statistical techniques that have been developed for mixed data in simulated environments necessarily requires ...
Padmanabhan S Krishna - - 2012
We propose a new adaptive Bayesian design, explicitly modeling the trade-off between efficacy and tolerability in dose-finding studies. This design incorporates a continuous efficacy variable and a dichotomous tolerability variable. This adaptive design was developed in the context of a drug under development for treatment of major depression, but is ...
Tang Man-Lai - - 2012
Investigating the prevalence of a disease is an important topic in medical studies. Such investigations are usually based on the classification results of a group of subjects according to whether they have the disease. To classify subjects, screening tests that are inexpensive and nonintrusive to the test subjects are frequently ...
Seiliez Iban - - 2012
Many fish species experience long periods of fasting often associated with seasonal reductions in water temperature and prey availability or spawning migrations. During periods of nutrient restriction, changes in metabolism occur to provide cellular energy via catabolic processes. Muscle is particularly affected by prolonged fasting as proteins of this tissue ...
Rettiganti Mallik - - 2012
We use negative binomial (NB) models for the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based brain lesion count data from parallel group (PG) and baseline versus treatment (BVT) trials for relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients, and describe the associated likelihood ratio (LR), score, and Wald tests. We perform power analyses and sample ...
Price Katharine A R - - 2012
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is now the 8th most common cancer affecting men in the United States largely due to a rising epidemic of oropharynx cancer (tonsil and tongue base) associated with the human papillomavirus (HPV). The median overall survival for recurrent or metastatic head and neck cancer ...
Li Zixing - - 2012
The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates many key processes in plants, such as seed germination, seedling growth, and abiotic stress tolerance. In recent years, a minimal set of core components of a major ABA signaling pathway has been discovered. These components include a RCAR/PYR/PYL family of ABA receptors, a group ...
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