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Wang Xingwei - - 2012
Although mammography is the only clinically accepted imaging modality for screening the general population to detect breast cancer, interpreting mammograms is difficult with lower sensitivity and specificity. To provide radiologists "a visual aid" in interpreting mammograms, we developed and tested an interactive system for computer-aided detection and diagnosis (CAD) of ...
Levitsky Josh J Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. - - 2013
Immunosuppression (IS) withdrawal from calcineurin inhibitors is only possible in ≈ 20% of liver transplant recipients. However, mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (e.g., sirolimus; SRL) appear to be more immunoregulatory and might promote a tolerant state for withdrawal. Our aim was to determine whether systemic (i.e., blood, marrow, and allograft) ...
Zhou Wen-jing - - 2012
Besides targeting the well-known oncogenic c-Met, crizotinib is the first oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor inhibiting anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) in clinical trials for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. Here, we assessed the possible reversal of multidrug resistance (MDR) by crizotinib in vitro and in vivo. 1-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-3,5- diphenylformazan was ...
Gupta Pankaj - - 2012
• Tofacitinib (CP-690,550) is a novel, oral Janus kinase inhibitor being investigated as a targeted immunomodulator and disease-modifying therapy in rheumatoid arthritis. • Non-renal elimination accounts for 70% of the total clearance of tofacitinib and the metabolism is primarily mediated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4. • This study was required ...
Rushton Emma - - 2012
Mind-the-Gap (MTG) is required for neuronal induction of Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ) postsynaptic domains, including glutamate receptor (GluR) localization. We have previously hypothesized that MTG is secreted from the presynaptic terminal to reside in the synaptic cleft, where it binds glycans to organize the heavily glycosylated, extracellular synaptomatrix required for ...
Grise Florence - - 2012
We performed a review of public microarray data that revealed a significant down-regulation of Rnd3 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), as compared to nontumor liver. Rnd3/RhoE is an atypical RhoGTPase family member because it is always under its active GTP-bound conformation and not sensitive to classical regulators. Rnd3 down-regulation was ...
Sun Jin-Hua - - 2012
The influence of naturally occurring polymorphisms on the potency of the HCV nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) replication complex inhibitor, BMS-790052, was investigated by evaluating hybrid replicons in which the entire NS5A coding region of genotype (GT) la and 1b laboratory (lab) strains (H77c and Con1) were replaced with the corresponding ...
Zhang Yuan - - 2012
Endostatin (ES) is a c-terminal proteolytic fragment of collagen XVIII with promising antitumour properties in several tumour models, including human glioblastoma. We hypothesized that this peptide could interact with plasma membrane ion channels and modulate their functions. Using cell proliferation and migration assays, patch clamp and Western blot analysis, we ...
Bos J Martijn - - 2012
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common heritable cardiovascular disease. A recent study showed that male KLF10-encoded TGFβ Inducible Early Gene-1 knock-out mice (TIEG-/-) develop HCM with 13-fold up-regulation of PTTG1-encoded pituitary tumor-transforming gene 1. We hypothesized TIEG1 could be a novel candidate gene in the pathogenesis of genotype negative ...
Puri Nitin - - 2012
Patho-physiological conditions with high oxidative stress, such as conditions associated with increased denatured heme-proteins, are associated with enhanced adipogenic response. This effect predominantly manifests as adipocyte hypertrophy characterized by dysfunctional, pro-inflammatory adipocytes exhibiting reduced expression of anti-inflammatory hormone, adiponectin. To understand how increased levels of cellular heme, a pro-oxidant molecule, ...
Myöhänen T T - - 2012
The aggregation of α-synuclein is connected to the pathology of Parkinson's disease and prolyl oligopeptidase (PREP) accelerates the aggregation of α-synuclein in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a PREP inhibitor, KYP-2047, on α-synuclein aggregation in cell lines overexpressing wild-type or A30P/A53T mutant human ...
Mapp Paul I - - 2012
We have tested the hypothesis that calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a mediator of capsaicin-induced angiogenesis in vivo. In a series of experiments, the knee joints of rats were injected with CGRP, capsaicin or vehicle control. Groups of animals (n=6) were treated with the CGRP receptor antagonist BIBN4096BS and/or the ...
Hassing H Carlijne - - 2012
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) impairs hepatic clearance of atherogenic postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs). We recently reported that livers from T2DM db/db mice markedly overexpress the heparan sulfate glucosamine-6-O-endosulfatase-2 (SULF2), an enzyme that removes 6-O sulfate groups from heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) and suppresses uptake of TRLs by cultured hepatocytes. ...
Tanos Rachel - - 2012
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor. Activation of AhR mediates the expression of target genes (e.g., CYP1A1) by binding to dioxin response element (DRE) sequences in their promoter region. To understand the multiple mechanisms of AhR-mediated gene regulation, a microarray analysis on liver isolated from ligand-treated ...
David Suresh - - 2012
Snake bite incidence is highest in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. This retrospective audit of 533 adult patients, who had presented to the Emergency Department, collates clinical features, effect of pharmacologic interventions and the risk factors that influence morbidity and mortality. Dual toxicity, neurological and haematological, was observed in 30.4% of ...
Fothergill Kate E KE Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA. - - 2012
Much is known about contemporaneous correlates of homelessness from studies of homeless individuals. However, few studies have prospectively examined early antecedents and prevalence of homelessness in community populations. We use data from a 35-year study of a community population of African Americans to examine relationships between homelessness and prior structural, ...
Bomfim Gisele F GF Department of Pharmacology, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. - - 2012
Activation of TLRs (Toll-like receptors) induces gene expression of proteins involved in the immune system response. TLR4 has been implicated in the development and progression of CVDs (cardio-vascular diseases). Innate and adaptive immunity contribute to hypertension-associated end-organ damage, although the mechanism by which this occurs remains unclear. In the present ...
Fang YuXiang Y State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering and Institute of Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, - - 2012
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to be involved in carcinogenesis and tumor progression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, microRNA-7 (miR-7) has been proven to play a substantial role in glioblastoma and breast cancer, but its functions in the context of HCC remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that miR-7 inhibits HCC cell ...
Fernandes E S - - 2012
The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 and ankyrin 1 (TRPV1 and TRPA1, respectively) channels are members of the TRP superfamily of structurally related, non-selective cation channels. It is rapidly becoming clear that the functions of TRPV1 and TRPA1 interlink with each other to a considerable extent. This is especially clear ...
Insel Paul A - - 2012
Fibrosis, the result of excess deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM), in particular collagen, leads to scarring and loss of function in tissues that include the heart, lung, kidney and liver. The second messenger cAMP can inhibit the formation and extent of ECM during this late phase of inflammation, but the ...
OʼHara Ruth R Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford University, CA 94305, USA. - - 2012
Resilience is proposed as a significant component of successful aging. Young adult carriers of the Serotonin Transporter Polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) short(s) allele appear to have reduced resilience to stress. We examined whether the presence of the short allele was associated with poorer emotional resilience in older adults. In a cross-sectional study ...
Shen Jing - - 2012
Alterations in DNA methylation frequently occur in hepatocellular cancer (HCC). We have previously demonstrated that hypermethylation in candidate genes can be detected in plasma DNA before HCC diagnosis. To identify, with a genome-wide approach, additional genes hypermethylated in HCC that could be used for more accurate analysis of plasma DNA ...
Fischer Janett - - 2012
In patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, several variants of the interleukin-28B (IL28B) gene have been shown to correlate significantly with a sustained virologic response (SVR). Recent evidence shows that determination of one single IL28B polymorphism, rs12979860, is sufficient for predicting treatment outcome. We examined whether the combined ...
Nakajima Hideaki - - 2012
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) derived from bone marrow can potentially reduce the acute inflammatory response in spinal cord injury (SCI) and thus promote functional recovery. However, the precise mechanisms through which transplanted MSC attenuate inflammation after SCI are still unclear. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of ...
Liu Lin L Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, - - 2012
The aim of this study is to determine whether early viral dynamics and evolution predict outcome of primary acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. HCV- and human immunodeficiency virus-negative injection drug users were enrolled prospectively and followed monthly to identify acute HCV infection using RNA detection. Subjects with more than ...
Griesbach Grace S - - 2012
Voluntary exercise increases levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) when it occurs during a delayed time window. In contrast, acute post-TBI exercise does not increase BDNF. It is well known that increases in glucocorticoids suppress levels of BDNF. Moreover, recent work from our laboratory showed ...
Hinzman Jason M - - 2012
Disrupted regulation of extracellular glutamate in the central nervous system contributes to and can exacerbate the acute pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Previously, we reported increased extracellular glutamate in the striatum of anesthetized rats 2 days after diffuse brain injury. To determine the mechanism(s) responsible for increased extracellular glutamate, ...
Church David N - - 2012
Survivin is a 16.5 kDa protein that functions to inhibit apoptosis, promote proliferation, and enhance invasion. Absent in most adult tissues, survivin is selectively upregulated in many human tumors, where its overexpression correlates with poor outcome and treatment resistance. Consequently, survivin is a promising target for cancer therapy. Preclinical data ...
Bultot Laurent L de Duve Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, Avenue Hippocrate 75, bte B1.74.02, B-1200 Brussels, - - 2012
Recombinant muscle GYS1 (glycogen synthase 1) and recombinant liver GYS2 were phosphorylated by recombinant AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) in a time-dependent manner and to a similar stoichiometry. The phosphorylation site in GYS2 was identified as Ser7, which lies in a favourable consensus for phosphorylation by AMPK. Phosphorylation of GYS1 or ...
Novak Richard M - - 2012
To describe incidence of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) and its association with mortality in a large multisite US HIV-infected cohort applying an objective, comprehensive definition. We studied 2,610 patients seen during 1996-2007 who initiated or resumed highly active combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and, during the next 6 months, demonstrated ...
Navarro Maria N MN The College of Life Sciences, Division of Cell Signalling and Immunology, The University of Dundee, Scotland, - - 2012
PKD (protein kinase D) 2 is a serine/threonine kinase activated by diacylglycerol in response to engagement of antigen receptors in lymphocytes. To explore PKD2 regulation and function in TCR (T-cell antigen receptor) signal transduction we expressed TCR complexes with fixed affinity for self antigens in the T-cells of PKD2-null mice ...
Luci C - - 2012
Psoriasis and atopic dermatitis are the most recurrent skin inflammatory disorders. Despite their distinct aetiology and clinical aspects, these diseases share several immunological features. Besides the largely documented role of T cells, emerging literature supports a potential involvement of innate immune effectors, the natural killer (NK) cells, in both pathologies. ...
Nishijima Takeshi - - 2012
The efficacy and safety of once-daily darunavir/ritonavir and fixed-dose abacavir/lamivudine was examined in 22 treatment-naïve patients with HIV-1 infection. Three patients discontinued antiretroviral therapy due to mild adverse events. Among 18 patients who continued therapy, 66.7% had viral load less than 50 copies/ml at week 48. Only two patients experienced ...
Pfab Florian - - 2012
Gastrointestinal motility disorders (GMDs) are common in the ICU. When encountering these problems, one typically thinks of prokinetics. This review summarizes current evidence of treatments. Prokinetics are not the first-line therapy for GMDs. In fact, the clinical implications of using prokinetic agents are rather controversial. Current evidence on alternative treatment ...
Costa Aline G - - 2012
Inactivating mutations of the SOST gene cause a reduction in sclerostin levels and are associated with high bone mass. The clinical phenotypes, sclerosteosis and van Buchem's disease, were described in 1950s. Much later, it was learned that both diseases are due to loss-of-function mutations in the SOST gene. As a ...
Khaled Samer K - - 2012
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a heterogeneous disease, for which treatment guidelines are still evolving. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is a potentially curative therapeutic modality for ALL, and this review describes the recent studies and current practice patterns concerning the who, when, and how of allo-HCT in the management ...
Hart Jaime E - - 2012
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although cigarette smoking is the major cause of COPD, occupational exposures have emerged as an important risk factor, especially in nonsmokers. In this review, we assess the state of the literature on the association of COPD ...
Byrd J Kenneth - - 2012
Well differentiated thyroid carcinoma (WDTC) is a relatively common malignancy accounting for an estimated 37,000 thousand cases in the United States in 2009 [1]. WDTC also has a generally high 5 year survival rate that correlates with age. Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) greater than 1 cm is best managed by ...
Smart Trevor G TG Department of Neuroscience, Physiology & Pharmacology, University College London, London, United Kingdom. - - 2012
Since the discovery of the major excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters and their receptors in the brain, many have deliberated over their likely structures and how these may relate to function. This was initially satisfied by the determination of the first amino acid sequences of the Cys-loop receptors that recognized acetylcholine, ...
Chen Yan - - 2012
Transcription factors of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) family regulate both immune activation and insulin production. Calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) target NFAT activation. Hence, CNIs not only prevent organ transplant rejection but also contribute to the development of new-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT). Given individual variation in the ...
Pokrovskaya I D - - 2012
Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria that replicate inside the host cell in a bacterial modified unique compartment called the inclusion. As other intracellular pathogens, chlamydiae exploit host membrane trafficking pathways to prevent lysosomal fusion and to acquire energy and nutrients essential for their survival and replication. The Conserved Oligomeric ...
Nemolato Sonia - - 2012
Thymosin β 4 (Tβ(4)) is a ubiquitous peptide that plays pivotal roles in the cytoskeletal system and in cell differentiation during embryogenesis. Recently, a role for Tβ(4) has been proposed in experimental and human carcinogenesis. This study was aimed at evaluating the correlation between Tβ(4) immunoractivity and colorectal cancer, with ...
Fineman M S - - 2012
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a gut-derived hormone secreted in response to nutrients, has several glucose and weight regulating actions including enhancement of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, suppression of glucagon secretion, slowing of gastric emptying and reduction in food intake. Because of these multiple effects, the GLP-1 receptor system has become an attractive ...
Tamamis Phanourios - - 2012
We report the computational and rational design of new generations of potential peptide-based inhibitors of the complement protein C3 from the compstatin family. The binding efficacy of the peptides is tested by extensive molecular dynamics-based structural and physicochemical analysis, using 32 atomic detail trajectories in explicit water for 22 peptides ...
Xu Wei - - 2012
The purpose of this investigation is to research the expression and effect of HoxB5 during pulmonary injury and to investigate the repairing ability of alveolar epithelial cells in such processes. Eighty neonatal rats were randomly divided into two groups: a group of high concentration of oxygen and the control group. ...
Corner Michael - - 2012
A comprehensive review is presented of reported aspects and putative mechanisms of sleep-like motility rhythms throughout the animal kingdom. It is proposed that 'rapid eye movement (REM) sleep' be regarded as a special case of a distinct but much broader category of behavior, 'rapid body movement (RBM) sleep', defined by ...
Grammes F - - 2012
Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) is a disease causing considerable mortality in farmed Atlantic salmon. We have previously reported that pre-feeding of tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) reduces the mortality during a natural outbreak of HSMI. In the present paper we show that in the cardiac ventricle, during HSMI infection, pre-feeding ...
Xia Ruiping - - 2012
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative disease that is clinically manifested by a triad of cardinal motor symptoms - rigidity, bradykinesia and tremor - due to loss of dopaminergic neurons. The motor symptoms of PD become progressively worse as the disease advances. PD is also a heterogeneous disease ...
Macpherson H L - - 2012
Vibrio splendidus is a pathogen that can cause major losses during the early stages of larval turbot rearing when live feed (rotifers or Artemia) is used. As haemolytic bacteria have often been associated with larval rearing losses, we studied the role of the V. splendidus haemolysin in infection of larvae. From ...
Yan Jing-Zhi - - 2012
Objective Postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) plays important roles in the regulation of glutamate signaling, such as that of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). In this study, the functional roles of PSD-95 in tyrosine phosphorylation of NMDAR subunit 2A (NR2A) and in apoptosis-like cell death induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) in cultured ...
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