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Ali Shadan - - 2012
Human pancreatic cancer (PC) is an aggressive disease, which has been recapitulated in transgenic animal model that provides unique opportunity for mechanistic understanding of disease progression and also for testing the efficacy of novel therapeutics. Emerging evidence suggests deregulated expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) in human PC, and thus we investigated ...
Birukova Anna A - - 2012
Small GTPase Rac is important regulator of endothelial cell (EC) barrier enhancement by prostacyclin characterized by increased peripheral actin cytoskeleton and increased interactions between VE-cadherin and other adherens junction (AJ) proteins. This study utilized complementary approaches including siRNA knockdown, culturing in Ca(2+) -free medium, and VE-cadherin blocking antibody to alter ...
Braconi Daniela D Dipartimento di Biotecnologie, Università degli Studi di Siena, Siena, - - 2012
Alkaptonuria (AKU) is a rare genetic disease associated with the accumulation of homogentisic acid (HGA) and its oxidized/polymerized products which leads to the deposition of melanin-like pigments (ochronosis) in connective tissues. Although numerous case reports have described ochronosis in joints, little is known on the molecular mechanisms leading to such ...
Plews Jordan R JR Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, - - 2012
The path to induced pluripotency Discovery of a pan-species pluripotency network Animal iPSCs and disease modelling Issues with large animal iPSCs Conclusions The derivation of human embryonic stem cells and subsequently human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has energized regenerative medicine research and enabled seemingly limitless applications. Although small animal ...
Chalazonitis Alcmène A Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA. - - 2012
Formation of the enteric nervous system (ENS) from migratory neural crest-derived cells that colonize the primordial gut involves a complex interplay among different signaling molecules. The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), specifically BMP2 and BMP4, play a particularly important role in virtually every stage of gut and ENS development. BMP signaling ...
Zhao Wen-Hua - - 2012
Vascular calcification (VC) is frequent prevalence in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and atherosclerosis. Lanthanum carbonate is used as an orally administered phosphate-binding agent to reduce the gastrointestinal absorption of phosphate and ameliorate VC in advanced CKD. In this study, we used bovine vascular smooth muscle cells as a ...
Prockop Darwin J - - 2012
There is currently great interest in the use of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) for the therapy of many diseases of animals and humans. However, we are still left with the serious challenges in explaining the beneficial effects of the cells. Hence, it is essential to work backward from dramatic results ...
Leung Tung Ming - - 2012
Argininosuccinate synthase (ASS) is the rate-limiting enzyme in both the urea and the L-citrulline/nitric oxide (NO·) cycles regulating protein catabolism, ammonia levels, and NO· generation. Because a proteomics analysis identified ASS and nitric oxide synthase-2 (NOS2) as coinduced in rat hepatocytes by chronic ethanol consumption, which also occurred in alcoholic ...
Rowe Jared H - - 2012
The immune system is intricately regulated allowing potent effectors to expand and become rapidly mobilized after infection, while simultaneously silencing potentially detrimental responses that averts immune-mediated damage to host tissues. This relies in large part on the delicate interplay between immune suppressive regulatory CD4(+) T (Treg) cells and immune effectors ...
Cammarata Martha L - - 2012
It has been proposed that proprioceptive impairments observed in knee osteoarthritis (OA) may be associated with disease-related changes in joint mechanics. The aim of this study was to quantify joint proprioception and stiffness in the frontal plane of the knee in persons with and without knee OA and to report ...
Fragliasso Valentina - - 2012
The CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα) is a transcription factor required for differentiation of myeloid progenitors. In acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells expressing the constitutively active FLT3-ITD receptor tyrosine kinase, MAP kinase-dependent phosphorylation of serine 21 (S21) inhibits the ability of C/EBPα to induce granulocytic differentiation. To assess whether this ...
Ng Yee Seng - - 2012
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding ribonucleic acids known to affect gene expression at the translational level and there is mounting evidence that miRNAs play a role in the function of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). To aid the functional analyses of miRNAs in an in-vitro model of TAMs known as M2 macrophages, ...
Yeung Percy Luk - - 2012
The PML protein and PML nuclear bodies (PML-NB) are implicated in multiple cellular functions relevant to tumor suppression, including DNA damage response. In most cases of acute promyelocytic leukemia, the PML and retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARA) genes are translocated, resulting in expression of oncogenic PML-RARα fusion proteins. PML-NB fail ...
Redis Roxana S - - 2012
Theranostics was coined originally as a term used to describe a system that combines diagnosis and therapy, aiming to provide the tools for personalized medicine. This review reasserts the grounds for regarding non-coding RNAs (ncRNA) as theranostics in human cancers. The microRNAs (miRNAs) are the most well studied ncRNAs in ...
Chen Wen-Pin - - 2012
While recent data have supported the capacity for a neonatal heart to undergo cardiomyogenesis, it is unclear whether these new cardiomyocytes arise from an immature cardiomyoblast population or from the division of mature cardiomyocytes. By following the expression of enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (eGFP) in an Nkx2.5 enhancer-eGFP transgenic mice, ...
van Himbergen Thomas M - - 2012
To investigate the contribution of biomarkers of glucose homeostasis (adiponectin, glucose, glycated albumin, and insulin levels) and inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) levels) to the risk of developing Alzheimer disease (AD) and all-cause dementia. Prospective cohort study. Dementia-free Framingham Heart Study participants had sera measured for these ...
Willis Allison W - - 2012
To determine the life expectancy of patients with Parkinson disease (PD) in the United States and identify demographic, geographic, and clinical factors that influence survival. Retrospective cohort study of 138 000 Medicare beneficiaries with incident PD who were identified in 2002 and followed up through 2008. Confounder-adjusted 6-year risk of ...
Wolf Philip A - - 2012
The Framingham Heart Study, the longest-running prospective epidemiologic study in history, was initiated in 1948 in response to the rising toll of coronary heart disease and hypertension. During the ensuing decades, the study of other diseases, notably stroke and dementia, was added. In 1971, 5124 offspring of the original cohort ...
Volarevic Vladislav - - 2012
We used concanavalin A (Con A)-induced liver injury to study the role of galectin-3 (Gal-3) in the induction of inflammatory pathology and hepatocellular damage. We tested susceptibility to Con A-induced hepatitis in galectin-3-deficient (Gal-3(-/-)) mice and analyzed the effects of pretreatment with a selective inhibitor of Gal-3 (TD139) in wild-type ...
Sullivan Shelby S Center for Human Nutrition, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO; Atkins Center of Excellence in Obesity Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO; Division of Gastroenterology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, - - 2012
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alterations in hepatic lipoprotein kinetics are common metabolic complications associated with obesity. Lifestyle modification involving diet-induced weight loss and regular exercise decreases intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) content and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride (TG) secretion rate. The aim of this study was to evaluate ...
Xu Liangliang - - 2012
Sorting nexin (SNX) family proteins are best characterized for their abilities to regulate protein trafficking during processes such as endocytosis of membrane receptors, endosomal sorting, and protein degradation, but their in vivo functions remain largely unknown. We started to investigate the biological functions of SNXs using the zebrafish model. In ...
Ehmer Ursula U Department of Gastroenterology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, - - 2012
Gilbert syndrome (GS) is characterized by intermittent unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia without structural liver damage, affecting about 10% of the white population. In GS the UGT1A1*28 variant reduces bilirubin conjugation by 70% and is associated with irinotecan and protease inhibitor side effects. The aim of this study was to characterize potential in ...
Pan Qiuwei - - 2012
Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is a highly effective immunosuppressant that has broad antiviral activity against different viruses and can act in synergy with interferon-α (IFN-α) on hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication. MPA is a potent inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) inhibitor but the antiviral mechanisms are less understood. The aim of this ...
Guy Cynthia D CD Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, - - 2012
The Hedgehog (HH)-signaling pathway mediates several processes that are deregulated in patients with metabolic syndrome (e.g., fat mass regulation, vascular/endothelial remodeling, liver injury and repair, and carcinogenesis). The severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and metabolic syndrome generally correlate. Therefore, we hypothesized that the level of HH-pathway activation would ...
Denniston Maxine M - - 2012
Many persons infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) are unknown to the healthcare system because they may be asymptomatic for years, have not been tested for HCV infection, and only seek medical care when they develop liver-related complications. We analyzed data from persons who tested positive for past or current ...
Krawczyk Marcin - - 2012
In hepatocytes and enterocytes sterol uptake and secretion is mediated by Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC)G5/8 proteins, respectively. Whereas serum levels of phytosterols represent surrogate markers for intestinal cholesterol absorption, cholesterol precursors reflect cholesterol biosynthesis. Here we compare serum and biliary sterol levels in ethnically different populations ...
Soriano Germán - - 2012
Falls are frequent among patients with debilitating disorders and can have a serious effect on health status. Mild cognitive disturbances associated with cirrhosis may increase the risk for falls. Identifying subjects at risk may allow the implementation of preventive measures. Our aim was to assess the predictive value of the ...
Zhang Yanbo - - 2012
Integrins not only mediate cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix adhesion, but also affect the multitude of signal transduction cascades in control of cell survival, proliferation, differentiation and organ development. Mutations in integrins or the major effectors of integrin signalling pathways cause defective organ development, immunodeficiency, cancer or autoimmune disease. Understanding of ...
Henson Sian M - - 2012
Highly differentiated CD8(+) CD28(-) CD27(-) T cells have short telomeres, defective telomerase activity and reduced capacity for proliferation. In addition, these cells express increased levels of inhibitory receptors and display defective Akt(ser(473)) phosphorylation following activation. It is not known whether signalling via programmed death 1 (PD-1) contributes to any of ...
Chen Guokai - - 2012
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF), transforming growth factor (TGF)/Nodal, and Insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling pathways are sufficient to maintain human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells in a proliferative, undifferentiated state. Here, we show that only a few FGF family members (FGF2, FGF4, FGF6, and FGF9) are ...
Palmer Keith T - - 2012
Experts disagree about the optimal classification of upper extremity disorders. To explore whether differential response to treatments offers a basis for choosing between case definitions, we analyzed previously published research. We screened 183 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of treatments for upper extremity disorders identified from the bibliographies of 10 Cochrane ...
Roy Sashwati - - 2012
Chronic wounds represent a rising health and economic burden to our society. Emerging studies indicate that miRNAs play a key role in regulating several hubs that orchestrate the wound inflammation and angiogenesis processes. Of interest to wound inflammation are the regulatory loops where inflammatory mediators elicited following injury are regulated ...
Smith Edward J EJ Department of Neuroscience, King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, London, - - 2012
Stroke remains one of the most promising targets for cell therapy. Thorough preclinical efficacy testing of human neural stem cell (hNSC) lines in a rat model of stroke (transient middle cerebral artery occlusion) is, however, required for translation into a clinical setting. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) here confirmed stroke damage ...
Singal Ashwani K - - 2012
Data on liver transplantation for patients with alcoholic hepatitis are limited. Using the United Network for Organ Sharing database (2004-2010), adults undergoing liver transplantation for a listing diagnosis of alcoholic hepatitis were matched for age, gender, ethnicity, and model for endstage disease (MELD) score, donor risk index, and year of ...
Wang Zhengguang - - 2012
The currently available chemotherapeutic regimens against gastric cancer are not very effective, leading to high recurrence and poor survival. Resveratrol is a naturally occurring polyphenol with potent apoptosis-inducing activity. However, the mechanism underlying its actions remains unknown. In the present study, human gastric adenocarcinoma SGC7901 cells were treated with resveratrol ...
Feng Xuezhu - - 2012
Unlike mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), which are closely related to the inner cell mass, human ESCs appear to be more closely related to the later primitive ectoderm. For example, human ESCs and primitive ectoderm share a common epithelial morphology, growth factor requirements, and the potential to differentiate to all ...
Ball Stephen G - - 2012
Defining the signaling mechanisms that regulate the fate of adult stem cells is an essential step toward their use in regenerative medicine. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) signaling plays a crucial role in specifying mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) commitment to mesenchymal lineages. Based on the hypothesis that selective inhibition of ...
Tekpli Xavier - - 2012
CYP1A1 (cytochrome P4501A1) catalyze the conversion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons into reactive metabolites, which may induce DNA damage. We hypothesized that DNA methylation of the CYP1A1 enhancer could be involved in inter-individual differences in mRNA levels of CYP1A1 or affect the smoking-induced DNA damage in human lung. Using DNA bisulfite ...
Rodríguez Ana Cecilia - - 2012
Carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are very common after sexual debut and nearly all become undetectable ("clear") within a few years. Following clearance, the long-term risks of type-specific HPV re-appearance and subsequent risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) are not well defined. In the 7-year, population-based ...
Jirásková Alena A 4th Department of Internal Medicine, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech - - 2012
Heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) and bilirubin UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT1A1) enzymes, both involved in bilirubin homeostasis, play an important role in the oxidative stress defense. The objective of our study was to assess the effect of promoter variations of HMOX1 and UGT1A1 genes and of serum bilirubin on the risk of sporadic colorectal ...
Stanley Emily M - - 2012
The medial septum (MS) of the basal forebrain contains cholinergic neurons that project to the hippocampus, support cognitive function, and are implicated in age-related cognitive decline. Hypothalamic orexin/hypocretin neurons innervate and modulate basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and provide direct inputs to the hippocampus. However, the precise role of orexin in ...
Bieszczad Kasia M - - 2012
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the brain are important for cognitive function; however, their specific role in relevant brain regions remains unclear. In this study, we used the novel compound ¹⁸F-nifene to examine the distribution of nAChRs in the rat forebrain, and for individual animals related the results to behavioral ...
Aoki Chiye - - 2012
Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is an animal model for anorexia nervosa that has revealed genetic links to anxiety traits and neurochemical characteristics within the hypothalamus. However, few studies have used this animal model to investigate the biological basis for vulnerability of pubertal and adolescent females to ABA, even though the great ...
Dohm Juliane C - - 2012
Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) is an important crop plant that accounts for 30% of the world's sugar production annually. The genus Beta is a distant relative of currently sequenced taxa within the core eudicotyledons; the genomic characterization of sugar beet is essential to make its genome accessible to molecular dissection. ...
Ciccarelli G - - 2012
Porous media are often used in flame arresters because of the high surface area to volume ratio that is required for flame quenching. However, if the flame is not quenched, the flow obstruction within the porous media can promote explosion escalation, which is a well-known phenomenon in obstacle-laden channels. There ...
Bradley D - - 2012
This paper first briefly surveys the energy releases in some major accidents. It then examines the analyses of the explosion at the Buncefield fuel storage site in the UK, one of the most intense accidental explosions in recent times. This followed the release of approximately 300 tonnes of winter-grade gasoline, ...
Oran Elaine S - - 2012
The motivation for devoting a Theme Issue to explosions is discussed. As subsequent articles in the issue are written with the assumption that the reader has had a certain amount of previous exposure to the subject, some of the history and necessary background information are presented here. The topics on ...
Chiquete Carlos - - 2012
A stability analysis is carried out taking into account slightly porous walls in an idealized detonation confined to a circular pipe. The analysis is carried out using the normal-mode approach and corrections are obtained to the underlying impenetrable wall case results to account for the effect of the slight porosity. ...
Bradley Derek - - 2012
The origins of autoignition at hot spots are analysed and the pressure pulses that arise from them are related to knock in gasoline engines and to developing detonations in ducts. In controlled autoignition engines, autoignition is benign with little knock. There are several modes of autoignition and the existence of ...
Starikovskiy Andrey - - 2012
Non-equilibrium plasma demonstrates great potential to control ultra-lean, ultra-fast, low-temperature flames and to become an extremely promising technology for a wide range of applications, including aviation gas turbine engines, piston engines, RAMjets, SCRAMjets and detonation initiation for pulsed detonation engines. The analysis of discharge processes shows that the discharge energy ...
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