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Fiorucci G - - 2012
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small (typically 22 nucleotides) non-coding, endogenous, single-stranded RNAs. MiRNA genes are evolutionarily conserved and are located within the introns or exons of protein-coding genes, as well as in intergenic areas. Before the discovery of miRNAs, it had been known that a large part of the genome is ...
Nevin John A JA University of New Hampshire, 20 Harborview Lane, Vineyard Haven, MA, 02568, USA. - - 2012
The effects of reinforcement on delayed matching to sample (DMTS) have been studied in two within-subjects procedures. In one, reinforcer magnitudes or probabilities vary from trial to trial and are signaled within trials (designated signaled DMTS trials). In the other, reinforcer probabilities are consistent for a series of trials produced ...
Rodríguez-Enríquez Sara - - 2012
Since Warburg proposed that cancer cells exhibit increased glycolysis due to apparent mitochondrial damage, numerous researchers have assumed that glycolysis is the predominant ATP supplier for cancer cell energy-dependent processes. However, chemotherapeutic strategies using glycolytic inhibitors have been unsuccessful in arresting tumor proliferation indicating that the original Warburg proposal may ...
Dommering Charlotte J - - 2012
Survivors of hereditary retinoblastoma have a high risk of second primary malignancies, but it has not been investigated whether specific RB1 germline mutations are associated with greater risk of second primary malignancies in a large cohort. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 199 survivors of hereditary retinoblastoma with a ...
Yalamanchili Vinod - - 2012
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of hormone therapy and calcitriol on depression in older postmenopausal women and to determine whether the response was associated with polymorphisms of estrogen receptor α and vitamin D receptor. In a double-blind placebo-controlled prospective trial involving 489 postmenopausal older women, ...
Griebling Tomas L TL Department of Urology and The Landon Center on Aging, Institute for Neurological Disorders, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160, - - 2012
Menopause is often accompanied by vaginal discomfort including burning, itching, dryness, and spontaneous or provoked pain. Although the direct effects of estrogen withdrawal on vaginal cells are implicated, surgical menopause in rodents causes autonomic and sensory nerves to proliferate, suggesting that indirect effects mediated by changes in vaginal innervation may ...
Walker Christopher M - - 2012
To determine the therapeutic yield of on-demand chest radiographs in intubated patients experiencing acute oxygen desaturation/hypoxia. A retrospective study was conducted examining all intubated intensive care unit patients over a 2 ½-year period. Subjects were included only if the patient had undergone a comparison radiograph while intubated and if the ...
Mora-Rodriguez Ricardo - - 2012
It is believed that the adaptations induced by aerobic training would prevent athletes from overheating while retaining body electrolytes during exercise in the heat. Data from our laboratory suggest that aerobic training is not enough to induce these adaptations. This review considers the factors that can lead to hyperthermia in ...
Kostrzewa-Nowak Dorota D Department of Biochemistry, University of Szczecin, - - 2012
The aim of this study was to examine the role of structural factors of antitumour anthraquinone derivatives and analogues in the ability to undergo bioreductive activation by NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) and determine the impact of this activation on increasing the activity especially with regard to multidrug resistant (MDR) ...
Ginsburg Brett C BC Department of Psychiatry, Division of Alcohol and Drug Addiction, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio 78229, USA. - - 2012
The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluvoxamine reduces responding for ethanol at lower doses than responding for food when each is available in separate components or separate groups of rats. However, when both are available concurrently and deliveries earned per session are equal, this apparent selectivity inverts and food-maintained behavior is ...
Alam Naufil N MRC Centre of Epidemiology for Child Health, University College London Institute of Child Health, London, UK. - - 2012
To estimate the prevalence of and identify risk factors for lipodystrophy syndrome (LS) and body fat abnormality in a population of HIV-infected children and adolescents. Cross-sectional observational study. HIV-infected subjects aged 2-18 years were recruited from 15 HIV centers in Belgium, Italy, and Poland between January 2007 and December 2008. ...
Knodel John J Population Studies Center, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1248, USA. - - 2012
Previous research makes clear that before antiretroviral therapy (ART), when HIV led to disabling illness and certain death, many older persons as parents of infected adults experienced adverse emotional, material and social consequences. The present study examines how widespread access to ART is transforming the situation in Thailand. Interviews with ...
Hong Ni - - 2012
Chimera formation is a standard test for pluripotency of stem cells in vivo. Interspecific chimera formation between distantly related organisms offers also an attractive approach for propagating endangered species. Parameters influencing interspecies chimera formation have remained poorly elucidated. Here, we report interordinal chimera formation between medaka and zebrafish, which separated ...
Nothdurfter Caroline - - 2012
Anxiety disorders are frequent and disabling disorders. For short-term treatment, benzodiazepines are useful due to their rapid onset of anxiolytic action. However, these compounds have sedative properties and may induce tolerance, abuse liability and withdrawal symptoms. First-line choices for the long-term treatment are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake ...
Salerno Silvia - - 2012
The classical benzodiazepines (Bz) constitute a well-known class of therapeutics displaying hypnotic, anxiolytic and anticonvulsant effects acting upon a specific binding site (BzR) belonging to the GABAA receptor complex. Their usefulness, however, is limited by a broad range of side effects; consequently the fact that the action of GABA with ...
Kwok Chun Shing - - 2012
There is considerable debate regarding the negative impact of concomitant proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy on the antiplatelet efficacy of clopidogrel. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of studies that have evaluated the platelet function of patients receiving clopidogrel alone compared with those receiving both ...
Costa Barbara - - 2012
Neurosteroids are able to rapidly control the excitability of the central nervous system, acting as regulators of type A receptors for GABA. Over the last two decades, many authors have confirmed that neurosteroid level alterations occur in psychiatric disorders, including anxiety disorders. More recently, investigators have manipulated neurosteroidogenesis in an ...
Trincavelli Maria Letizia - - 2012
Anxiety disorders have been linked to alterations in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission. GABA interacts with the ligand-gated ion channels, GABAA receptor (GABAA-R) subtypes, and regulates the flow of chloride into the cell, causing neuron hyperpolarization. GABAA-Rs are assembled from a family of 19 homologous subunit gene products and form mostly ...
Higashi Kyohei - - 2012
Commercial low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) are prepared by several methods including peroxidative cleavage, nitrous acid cleavage, chemical ß-elimination, and enzymatic β-elimination. The disadvantages of these methods are that strong reaction conditions or harsh chemicals are used and these can result in decomposition or modification of saccharide units within the ...
Marazziti Donatella - - 2012
Anxiety disorders represent the most prevalent psychiatric disorders. In addition, a considerable burden is associated with them, not only for individual sufferers, but also for the health care system. However, many patients who might benefit from treatment are not diagnosed or treated. This may partly be due to lack of ...
Sartini S - - 2012
Indolylglyoxylamides are a class of distinctive benzodiazepine receptor ligands, proposed in the mid-eighties as open analogues of β-carbolines. Thorough and long-lasting studies of their structure-activity relationships led to the development of a great deal of derivatives, to satisfy increasingly structural and pharmacophoric requirements of the benzodiazepine binding site in the ...
Fenwick Eva K - - 2012
To assess the impact of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular edema (DME) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in type 1 and type 2 diabetes using the EuroQoL EQ-5D generic multi-attribute utility instrument (MAUI). In this cross-sectional study, 577 patients with diabetes were recruited from specialized eye clinics in ...
Anijeet Deepa R - - 2012
To evaluate indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) and fluorescein angiography (FA) in imaging and quantifying corneal neovascularization (CNV). Patients with CNV were studied using a standardized protocol of color digital photography, FA, and ICGA. Images were graded independently by two observers and assessed for quality, phases of fluorescence, and leakage. Areas ...
Cosimelli Barbara - - 2012
Interaction between the so-called benzodiazepine receptor (BzR) and the chemically heterogeneous class of its ligands is still one of the most challenging objects of theoretical studies. In the mid-90s our group began to collaborate with Prof. Antonio Da Settimo and coworkers to a project of synthesis and biological evaluation of ...
Simorini Francesca - - 2012
The mitochondrial translocator protein (TSPO) mediates the synthesis of neurosteroids in the CNS, which have been demonstrated to enhance the neurotransmitter GABA response, exhibiting related behavioural properties. Selective TSPO ligands are able to stimulate steroidogenesis with great efficacy, thus representing potential anxiolytic agents. This review describes the development of a ...
Ortore Gabriella - - 2012
The Translocator Protein (18 kDa) (TSPO), previously known as the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, is widely expressed in glial cells and in peripheral tissues and is involved in a variety of biological processes: steroidogenesis, cell growth and differentiation, apoptosis induction, etc. TSPO basal expression is up-regulated in a number of human ...
Berntsen David A - - 2012
To compare the effect of wearing, then ceasing to wear, progressive addition lenses (PALs) versus single vision lenses (SVLs) on myopia progression in children with high accommodative lag to evaluate accommodative lag and mechanical tension as theories of myopia progression. Eighty-five children (age range, 6-11 years) with spherical equivalent (SE) ...
Zhao Heng - - 2012
Ischemic postconditioning is a concept originally defined to contrast with that of ischemic preconditioning. While both preconditioning and postconditioning confer a neuroprotective effect on brain ischemia, preconditioning is a sublethal insult performed in advance of brain ischemia, and postconditioning, which conventionally refers to a series of brief occlusions and reperfusions ...
Gerometta Rosana - - 2012
Sildenafil increases ocular blood flow. Thus, the authors investigated if it also increases anterior chamber (AC) refilling after paracentesis. Corriedale sheep and albino rabbits were used as animal models. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured, paracentesis performed on one eye, and AC refilling followed by observation using oblique illumination. IOP measurements ...
Qi Xiaoping - - 2012
This study aimed to determine whether upregulation of γ-secretase could inhibit laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and if this was associated with a reduction in both oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokines. γ-Secretase, or its catalytic subunit presenilin 1 (PS1), were upregulated by exposure to either pigment epithelial derived factor (PEDF) or ...
Weikel Karen A KA Laboratory for Nutrition and Vision Research, JM-USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, - - 2012
Epidemiologic data indicate that people who consume low glycemic index (GI) diets are at reduced risk for the onset and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The authors sought corroboration of this observation in an animal model. Five- and 16-month-old C57BL/6 mice were fed high or low GI diets until ...
Lavery William J WJ Department of Ophthalmology and Research Imaging Institute, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas, - - 2012
This study tests the hypothesis that reduced retinal and choroidal blood flow (BF) occur in the DBA/2J mouse model of glaucoma. Quantitative BF magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a resolution of 42 × 42 × 400 μm was performed on DBA/2J mice at 4, 6, and 9 months of age ...
Chu Xiang-Ping XP Department of Basic Medical Science, School of Medicine, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA. - - 2012
Protons are important signals for neuronal function. In the central nervous system (CNS), proton concentrations change locally when synaptic vesicles release their acidic contents into the synaptic cleft, and globally in ischemia, seizures, traumatic brain injury, and other neurological disorders due to lactic acid accumulation. The finding that protons gate ...
Jain Ankur A Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of North Texas Health Science Center at Fort Worth, Fort Worth, Texas 76107, USA. - - 2012
Glaucoma is a leading cause of visual impairment and blindness, with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) as a major causative risk factor. Glucocorticoid (GC) therapy causes morphologic and biochemical changes in the trabecular meshwork (TM), an ocular tissue involved in regulating IOP, which can lead to the development of glaucoma in ...
Trifirò Gianluca G Department of Medical Informatics, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. - - 2012
There is growing evidence that ergot dopamine agonists may induce cardiac valve regurgitation (CVR) in persons with Parkinson's disease. It is unclear whether the CVR risk is increased with ergot-dopamine agonist use in persons with hyperprolactinaemia, in whom the dose is much lower. The aim of the study was to ...
Namavari Abed A Corneal Neurobiology Laboratory, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, College of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois 60612, - - 2012
To determine whether immunomodulation with cyclosporine (CsA) affects reinnervation after surgical transection of stromal nerves. Thy1-YFP+ neurofluorescent mice underwent lamellar corneal surgery and 3 days later, received artificial tears or CsA eye drops for 6 weeks. Serial in vivo wide-field stereofluorescent microscopy was performed to determine changes in nerve fiber ...
Petsche Steven J SJ Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California, - - 2012
To measure the transverse shear modulus of the human corneal stroma and its profile through the depth by mechanical testing, and to assess the validity of the hypothesis that the shear modulus will be greater in the anterior third due to increased interweaving of lamellae. Torsional rheometry was used to ...
Feng Yuan Y Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, - - 2012
The use of opioid analgesics has a long history in clinical settings, although the comprehensive action of opioid receptors is still less understood. Nonetheless, recent studies have generated fresh insights into opioid receptor-mediated functions and their underlying mechanisms. Three major opioid receptors (μ-opioid receptor, MOR; δ-opioid receptor, DOR; and κ-opioid ...
Gu Xiaodong X Department of Chemistry, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, - - 2012
A β-hydroxy hydroperoxide was obtained through base-catalyzed disproportionation of a hydroperoxy endoperoxide available by singlet oxygenation of cyclohepta-1,4-diene. Vitamins E and C induce fragmentation of this β-hydroxy hydroperoxide generating aldehydes, especially in the presence of redox active metal ions such as those present in vivo, e.g., under conditions of "iron ...
Lepzelter David D Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. - - 2012
Integrins are transmembrane proteins that allow cells to bind to their external environment. They are the primary regulators of cell-matrix interactions, with direct roles in cell motility and signaling, which in turn regulate numerous physiological processes. Under common experimental conditions, integrins tend to cluster for sturdy and effective binding to ...
Oka Kentaro - - 2012
In this study, we investigated the correlation between the microbiological characteristics of Clostridium difficile clinical isolates and the recurrence of C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD). Twenty C. difficile isolates recovered from 20 single infection cases and 53 isolates from 20 recurrent cases were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and PCR ...
Salam M Abdus - - 2012
Confirmative diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is still a challenge at the primary health care facilities in most of the rural areas of endemicity in the Indian subcontinent. Conventional methods for parasitological confirmation are risky and require skilled personnel, and hence they are unavailable to the poor people in the ...
Abravanel Florence - - 2012
Genotype 3 hepatitis E viruses (HEVs) are distributed across the world and are now considered to be an emerging public health concern in industrialized countries. At least 10 genotype 3 subtypes have been identified in humans and animals worldwide. It was recently reported that the sensitivities of HEV RNA assays ...
Kang Jieun - - 2012
We found that South Korean Helicobacter pylori isolates predominantly carry homB at locus B and that there is no association between the homB allele and the cagA allele or the development of gastric cancer within this population. Uniquely, several East Asian strains carried multiple copies of the hom genes.
Iwen Peter C - - 2012
This report describes the first case of persistent bacteremia with endocarditis caused by Pediococcus acidilactici in a 32-year-old male with a history of short gut syndrome following a small bowel transplant. The results showed the utility of sequencing the intergenic spacer region for species identification and successful treatment using daptomycin.
Kitamura Yuka - - 2012
We report a case of sepsis caused by Rhodococcus corynebacterioides, identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, in a myelodysplastic syndrome patient who had undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This is the first report of R. corynebacterioides infection in a human.
Sharma-Kuinkel Batu K - - 2012
The impact of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) on the outcome in Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia is controversial. We genotyped S. aureus isolates from patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) enrolled in two registrational multinational clinical trials for the genetic elements carrying pvl and 30 other virulence genes. A total of 287 isolates (173 ...
Luo Tao - - 2012
The standard 15- and 24-locus variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) genotyping methods have demonstrated adequate discriminatory power and a small homoplasy effect for tracing tuberculosis (TB) transmission and predicting Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineages in European and North American countries. However, its validity for the definition of transmission in homogenous M. tuberculosis populations ...
Cui Zhenling - - 2012
The aim of this study was to establish and evaluate a simultaneous amplification and testing method for detection of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (SAT-TB assay) in clinical specimens by using isothermal RNA amplification and real-time fluorescence detection. In the SAT-TB assay, a 170-bp M. tuberculosis 16S rRNA fragment is reverse ...
Maduka-Ezeh Awele - - 2012
We describe a thymidine-dependent small-colony variant of Staphylococcus aureus associated with left ventricular assist device infection and prosthetic valve and pacemaker endocarditis.
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