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Results 551 - 600 of 1595
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Westerveld Marleen F - - 2011
This study investigated if the story retelling and comprehension task Ana Gets Lost, that is frequently used with school-aged children, has clinical utility with a preschool population. The study also assessed the task's concurrent and predictive validity with norm-referenced tests of language performance. A total of 92 typically-developing 4-year-old children ...
Silber S J - - 2011
The aim of this review is to summarize the state-of-the-art of ovarian transplantation and cryopreservation. This field has progressed over the last half century from simple animal experiments to sophisticated application in humans. The initial poor results in humans began to improve when a series of nine monozygotic (MZ) twin ...
Chu Kuan-Hua - - 2011
Rationale: Asthma is one of the most common chronic airway inflammatory diseases. Induction of immunologic tolerance via mucosa has been used for treating allergic diseases. B cells, the major cell population in Peyer's patches, have been shown to induce the development of Treg cells. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate ...
Weise D - - 2011
OBJECTIVE:To examine whether the corticospinal system emanating from the primary motor cortex may be organized to facilitate generation of dystonic movements. METHODS:In this cross-sectional observational study, finger movement (FM) representations were assessed in 10 patients with focal hand dystonia (FHD) and 10 matched healthy controls by transcranial magnetic stimulation during ...
Ohmure H - - 2011
Because various mastication-related factors influence gastric activity, the functional relationship between mastication and gastric function has not been fully elucidated. To investigate the influence of mastication on gastric emptying and motility, we conducted a randomized trial to compare the effects of mastication on gastric emptying and gastric myoelectrical activity under ...
Soberon M A - - 2011
The objective of this research was to investigate the fate of free ferulic acid (FA) in sheep. Ferulic acid is normally present in plants, bound to the indigestible cell wall. If the FA present in a ruminant diet is released from the cell wall with feed pretreatment methods, FA may ...
Morshedi Amir - - 2011
The reprogramming of adult somatic cells into an embryonic stem cell (ESC) state by various means has opened a new chapter in basic and applied life science. While this technology will create great opportunities for regenerative medicine, the more immediate impact is likely to be found in human disease modeling ...
Christou G A - - 2012
Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) is regarded as a novel cardiometabolic risk factor, which is secreted mainly by the hepatocytes and also by the adipose tissue. RBP4 has been shown to induce insulin resistance, and plasma RBP4 values are increased in type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular ...
Sang Zhongna - - 2011
BACKGROUND: The beneficial health effects associated with Universal Salt Iodization are well known. Yet, little is known about the possible adverse health effects in people with high iodine intake and the safe daily intake upper limit in the Chinese population. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to explore the ...
Hampson D R - - 2011
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental disorders whose prevalence has risen over the past two decades. Current drug treatments for ASDs and the related disorders-fragile X syndrome (FXS) and Rett syndrome-target specific symptoms but do not address the basic underlying etiologies. However, based partly on an improved understanding of the ...
Grasby Stephen E - - 2011
Abstract Gypsum filled "pipe" features were discovered in the proglacial area of the Borup Fiord Pass supraglacial sulfur spring. Stable isotope data suggest that gypsum is formed through oxidation of sulfides and are consistent with models of sulfuric acid speleogenesis. These results suggest that gypsum pipes are paleo-spring discharge channels ...
White David - - 2012
The repair of DNA damage in highly compact, transcriptionally silent heterochromatin requires that repair and chromatin packaging machineries be tightly coupled and regulated. KAP1 is a heterochromatin protein and co-repressor that binds to HP1 during gene silencing but is also robustly phosphorylated by Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) at serine 824 ...
Venitz Jürgen - - 2012
The authors review the basic pharmacology and potential for adverse drug-drug interactions (DDIs) of bosentan and ambrisentan, the 2 endothelin receptor antagonists currently approved for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) treatment. Bosentan, an endothelin (ET) receptor-type ET(A) and ET(B) antagonist, is metabolized to active metabolites by and an inducer of cytochrome ...
Matalova Eva - - 2012
Apoptosis is an important morphogenetic event in embryogenesis as well as during postnatal life. In the last 2 decades, apoptosis in tooth development (odontogenesis) has been investigated with gradually increasing focus on the mechanisms and signaling pathways involved. The molecular machinery responsible for apoptosis exhibits a high degree of conservation ...
Woo Patrick C Y - - 2012
Dicistroviridae and Picornaviridae are two phylogenetically related families of positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses in the picornavirus-like superfamily with similar gene contents but different genome organizations and hosts. In a surveillance study involving 1,472 samples from 368 dogs over a 22-month period, we identified a novel picornavirus-like virus from 47 fecal ...
Betts Richard J - - 2012
Foxp3(+) CD4(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) represent a highly suppressive T cell subset with well-characterized immunosuppressive effects during immune homeostasis and chronic infections, although the role of these cells in acute viral infections is poorly understood. The present study sought to examine the induction of Foxp3(+) CD4(+) Tregs in a ...
Tugizov Sharof M - - 2012
While human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission through the adult oral route is rare, mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) through the neonatal/infant oral and/or gastrointestinal route is common. To study the mechanisms of cell-free and cell-associated HIV transmission across adult oral and neonatal/infant oral/intestinal epithelia, we established ex vivo organ tissue model systems ...
Courchesne Michael J - - 2012
The cytolytic animal virus equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) was evaluated for its oncolytic potential against five human glioblastoma cell lines. EHV-1 productively infected four of these cell lines, and the degree of infection was positively correlated with glioma cell death. No human major histocompatibility complex class 1 (MHC-I) was ...
Li Fang - - 2012
Among different coronavirus genera, the receptor-binding S1 subunits of their spike proteins differ in primary, secondary, and tertiary structures. This study identified shared structural topologies (connectivity of secondary structural elements) in S1 domains of different coronavirus genera. The results suggest that coronavirus S1 subunits share a common evolutionary origin but ...
Suguitan Amorsolo L AL - - 2012
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5 and H7 subtypes typically possess multiple basic amino acids around the cleavage site (MBS) of their hemagglutinin (HA) protein, a recognized virulence motif in poultry. To determine the importance of the H5 HA MBS as a virulence factor in mammals, recombinant ...
Huang Zhi - - 2012
Immune complexes composed of IgG-opsonized pathogens, particles, or proteins are phagocytosed by macrophages through Fcγ receptors (FcγRs). Macrophages primed with IFNγ or other pro-inflammatory mediators respond to FcγR engagement by secreting high levels of cytokines and nitric oxide (NO). We found that unprimed macrophages produced lower levels of NO, which ...
Kotiw Michael - - 2012
Virus-like particles (VLPs) based on the small envelope protein of hepatitis B virus (HBsAg-S) are immunogenic at the B- and T-cell level. In this study, we inserted overlapping sequences encoding the carboxy terminus of the Helicobacter pylori katA gene product into HBsAg-S. The HBsAg-S-KatA fusion proteins were able to assemble ...
Tung Christie E - - 2012
The aim of this study was to determine which type of spinal needle is preferred from a cost perspective, taking into account costs of the spinal needle and treatment of postlumbar puncture headache. A decision-analytic model was created to determine the cost of diagnostic lumbar punctures using atraumatic and cutting ...
Yu Haibo - - 2012
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is highly associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), and it regulates some microRNAs (miRNAs) that are involved in the development of cancer. The role of EBV in the deregulation of cellular miRNAs and how this affects the progression of NPC remain to be investigated. An analysis of ...
Meissner Christina Sylvia - - 2012
The product of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL71 gene is conserved throughout the herpesvirus family. During HCMV infection, protein pUL71 is required for efficient virion egress and is involved in the final steps of secondary envelopment leading to infectious viral particles. We found strong indications for oligomerization of pUL71 under ...
Liang Bo - - 2012
BK polyomavirus (BKV) establishes persistent, low-level, and asymptomatic infections in most humans and causes polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PVAN) and other pathologies in some individuals. The activation of BKV replication following kidney transplantation, leading to viruria, viremia, and, ultimately, PVAN, is associated with immune suppression as well as inflammation and stress from ...
Maggin Jenna E - - 2012
The adeno-associated virus (AAV) genome encodes four Rep proteins, all of which contain an SF3 helicase domain. The larger Rep proteins, Rep78 and Rep68, are required for viral replication, whereas Rep40 and Rep52 are needed to package AAV genomes into preformed capsids; these smaller proteins are missing the site-specific DNA-binding ...
Bull Rowena A - - 2012
Norovirus (NoV) is an emerging RNA virus that has been associated with global epidemics of gastroenteritis. Each global epidemic arises with the emergence of novel antigenic variants. While the majority of NoV infections are mild and self-limiting, in the young, elderly, and immunocompromised, severe and prolonged illness can result. As ...
Miller Benjamin F - - 2012
The measurement of mitochondrial biogenesis is important in the determination of aging and disease processes and the assessment of countermeasurements to them. We argue that the frequently used assessments of cell signaling, mitochondrial protein mRNA, mitochondrial protein expression or enzyme activity, and mitochondrial density are not measurements that can lead ...
Kobolak Julianna - - 2012
In a mouse model nuclear transfer embryo-derived embryonic stem cell lines (ntESCs) of various genetic backgrounds and donor cell types were compared with reference ESCs and analyzed comprehensively at molecular level as a second part of a larger study. Expression profiles of ntESCs established by different NT-methods (piezoelectric microinjection or ...
Silva N R F A - - 2012
The present investigation hypothesized that the reliability of reduced-thickness monolithic lithium disilicate crowns is high relative to that of veneered zirconia (Y-TZP) and comparable with that of metal ceramic (MCR) systems. CAD/CAM first mandibular molar full-crown preparations were produced with uniform thicknesses of either 1.0-mm or 2.0-mm occlusal and axial ...
Chaumorcel Magali - - 2012
Human cytomegalovirus modulates macroautophagy in two opposite directions. First, HCMV stimulates autophagy during the early stages of infection, as evident by an increase in the number of autophagosomes and a rise in the autophagic flux. This stimulation occurs independently of de novo viral protein synthesis since UV-inactivated HCMV recapitulates the ...
Koppensteiner Herwig - - 2012
In macrophages, HIV-1 accumulates in intracellular vesicles designated virus-containing compartments (VCCs). These might play an important role in the constitution of macrophages as viral reservoirs and allow HIV-1 to evade the immune system by sequestration in an internal niche, which is difficult to access from the exterior. However, until now, ...
Dower Ken - - 2012
Orthopoxviruses include the prototypical vaccinia virus, the emerging infectious agent monkeypox virus, and the potential biothreat variola virus (the causative agent of smallpox). There is currently no FDA-approved drug for humans infected with orthopoxviruses. We screened a diversity-oriented synthesis library for new scaffolds with activity against vaccinia virus. This screen ...
Alex Martin - - 2012
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) helper functions for (AAV) replication comprise HSV ICP8 and helicase-primase UL5/UL52/UL8. Here we show that N-terminal amino acids of AAV Rep78 that contact the Rep-binding site within the AAV inverted terminal repeat (ITR) are required for ternary-complex formation with infected-cell protein 8 (ICP8) on AAV single-strand ...
Hultquist Judd F - - 2012
HIV-1 requires the cellular transcription factor CBFβ to stabilize its accessory protein Vif and promote APOBEC3G degradation. Here, we demonstrate that both isoforms of CBFβ allow for increased steady-state levels of Vif, enhanced APOBEC3G degradation, and increased viral infectivity. This conserved functional interaction enhances the steady-state levels of Vif proteins ...
Sakikawa Makiko - - 2012
Toxoplasmosis is a zoonosis caused by infection with Toxoplasma gondii and is prevalent worldwide under various climatic conditions. It is usually asymptomatic, but infection in pregnant women can pose serious health problems for the fetus. However, epidemiological information regarding toxoplasmosis in Japanese pregnant women is limited. This study aimed to ...
Silveira-Gomes Fabíola - - 2012
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a fungal disease caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, and Brazil is one of the principal countries where it is endemic. Diagnosis is based on the observation of budding P. brasiliensis yeast in clinical specimens from patients; however, the sensitivity of the visualization of fungi is low, indicating that ...
do Carmo Jussara M - - 2012
We have previously demonstrated that leptin-mediated activation of the central nervous system (CNS) melanocortin system reduces appetite and increases sympathetic activity and blood pressure (BP). In the present study we examined whether endogenous melanocortin system activation, independent of leptin's actions, contributes to the regulation of BP and metabolic functions in ...
Patronas Yianna - - 2012
Carney complex (CNC) is a multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome due to inactivating mutations in the PRKAR1A gene that codes for type Iα regulatory (RIα) subunit of protein kinase A. Most PRKAR1A mutations are subject to nonsense mRNA decay (NMD) and, thus, lead to haploinsufficiency. Patient phenotyping for CNC features and ...
Djekic Kristina - - 2012
Latent autoimmune diabetes of adults (LADA) is a form of autoimmune diabetes that has been classified as part of type 1 diabetes or as a distinct clinical entity. Its precise place as a disease category is therefore controversial. The objective of this study was to further examine this issue by ...
Bonente Giulia - - 2012
We report on the changes the photosynthetic apparatus of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii undergoes upon acclimation to different light intensity. When grown in high light, cells had a faster growth rate and higher biomass production compared with low and control light conditions. However, cells acclimated to low light intensity are indeed able ...
Xiong Hua - - 2012
The progression of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) to invasive and metastatic disease may involve localized occurrences of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, mechanisms of the EMT process in CRC progression are not fully understood. We previously showed that knockdown of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) up-regulated E-cadherin (a key ...
Cadena-Nava Ruben D - - 2012
Virus-like particles can be formed by self-assembly of capsid protein (CP) with RNA molecules of increasing length. If the protein "insisted" on a single radius of curvature, the capsids would be identical in size, independent of RNA length. However, there would be a limit to length of the RNA, and ...
Chiang Karen - - 2012
The replication of integrated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is dependent on the cellular cofactor cyclin T1, which binds the viral Tat protein and activates the RNA polymerase II transcription of the integrated provirus. The activation of resting CD4(+) T cells upregulates cyclin T1 protein levels independently of an ...
Zhang Qinghua - - 2012
Multiple signaling pathways are involved in the tight regulation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, which is important for the tailoring of inflammatory response to pathogens in macrophages. It is widely accepted that TLR signaling can activate Notch pathway; however, whether full activation of Notch signaling can feedback modulate TLR signaling ...
Smith Phillip P - - 2012
The prevalence of urinary symptoms increases with age and is a significant source of distress, morbidity, and expense in the elderly. Recent evidence suggests that symptoms in the aged may result from sensory dysfunction, rather than abnormalities of detrusor performance. Therefore, we employed a pressure/flow multichannel urethane-anesthetized mouse cystometry model ...
Stuebe Alison M - - 2012
In the early postpartum period, mother and infant navigate a critical neuroendocrine transition from pregnancy to lactation. Two major clinical problems that occur during this transition are failed lactation and perinatal mood disorders. These disorders often overlap in clinical settings. Failed lactation is common. Although all major medical organizations recommend ...
Goodman Laura B - - 2012
Equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) induces a variety of disease manifestations, including respiratory disease, abortions, and myeloencephalopathy. Several vaccines are commercially available but could not previously be distinguished by serologic testing from infection with EHV-1 (or the closely related EHV-4). Currently available vaccines are not reliably protective against the severe manifestations ...
Kobolak Julianna - - 2012
Embryonic stem cells derived from nuclear transfer embryos (ntESCs) are particularly valuable for regenerative medicine, as they are a patient-specific and histocompatible cell source for the treatment of varying diseases. However, currently, little is known about their cellular and molecular profile. In the present study, in a mouse model different ...
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