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McKerchar, Todd - - 2012
The purpose of this review is to introduce the reader to the concepts of delay and probability discounting as well as the major empirical findings to emerge from research with humans on these concepts. First, we review a seminal discounting study by Rachlin, Raineri, and Cross (1991) as well as ...
Bondy, Andy - - 2012
The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is an alternative/augmentative communication protocol designed to help children and adults with autism and related disabilities to engage in functional communication. The protocol was developed over a number of years and was based on Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior. Publications about the application and ...
Smets, Jorien - - 2012
Depressed patients commonly experience intrusive memories. There is some evidence that ruminative responses to those intrusions are important for maintaining depressive symptoms. Three models concerning the interplay of intrusions and rumination in the prediction of depressive symptoms were tested in students in 2 studies (N = 711): (a) rumination moderating ...
Gianico-Relyea, Jennifer - - 2012
The tip-of-the-tongue experience (TOT) is a universal phenomenon in which a speaker Cannot fully produce a word that he or she believes will eventually be recalled and could easily be recognized. The purpose of the current experiment is to determine how variables such as word concreteness and word frequency influence ...
Tovar, Angel, - - 2012
We analyzed stimulus class formation in a human study and in a connectionist model (CM) with a yes/no procedure, using compound stimuli. In the human study, the participants were six female undergraduate students; the CM was a feed-forward back-propagation network. Two 3-member stimulus classes were trained with a similar procedure ...
Gan, Yiqun - - 2012
The objectives of the present study were to conceptualize interpersonal coping flexibility and to explore how it influences personal adaptation. Two hundred sixty two university students were classified based on their responses to prompts about their degree of prioritizing harmony and the number of coping strategies they employed when dealing ...
Brassai, Laszlo - - 2012
Although the role of existential attitudes in adolescent health-related behavior has received increased attention recently, historically it has been underinvestigated in the field. The present study focuses on existential attitudes related to meaning in life and hopelessness. Relations of presence of meaning, search for meaning, and hopelessness with past and ...
Troisi, Joseph R., - - 2012
Extinction and recovery of the discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine (0.3 mg/kg) was investigated with a devalued food reinforcer (rats sated). Sixteen rats were trained in a counterbalanced one manipulandum (nose-poke) drug discrimination procedure with the roles of nicotine and saline counterbalanced as [S.sup.D] and [S.sup.[DELTA]]. Discrimination training was maintained ...
Kroger-Costa, Andreia - - 2012
The present study investigated the effect of the presence of the experimenter on behavioral sensitivity to contingency change. In history training, college students were exposed to differential reinforcement of low rate (DRL) and fixed-ratio (FR) schedules, and in testing, to a fixed-interval (FI) schedule. For the control group, instructions were ...
Nastally, Becky - - 2012
In the current study, 3 participants with a history of problem gambling were exposed to computerized slot machine play consisting of outcomes that depicted wins, losses, and near misses (2 out of 3 identical slot machine symbols). Participants were asked to rate each type of outcome in terms of its ...
Vitale, Agata - - 2012
The current article examined patterns of adult responding to arbitrary more-than and less-than relations across a range of real-world tasks. Previous research had reported weak performances on specific types of comparative relations presented in an automated task but also demonstrated that these could be significantly improved with feedback and nonarbitrary ...
Sonoda, Akira - - 2012
One member of each pair of 52 undergraduates, referred to as a learner, was trained BC conditional discriminations, with B stimuli as the samples and C stimuli as the correct comparisons. Responses of the learner were either reinforced or punished by another member of each pair, an instructor, who had ...
Polenick, Courtney - - 2012
The effects of social praise contingent on either usual (conventional) or unusual (unconventional) responses during an object uses task were assessed on measures of generalized creativity in two novel, unrelated tasks. Participants were 20 older adults, ages 63 to 89 years (M = 80.90), who were recruited from a joint ...
St. Peter, Claire - - 2012
Sleep insufficiency is a major public health concern, yet the accuracy of self-reported sleep measures is often poor. Self-report may be useful when direct measurement of nonverbal behavior is impossible, infeasible, or undesirable, as it may be with sleep measurement. We used feedback and positive reinforcement within a small-n multiple-baseline ...
Wray, Alisha - - 2012
Acceptance and commitment therapy asserts that in clinical problems such as rumination and depression, making sense continues despite accompanying aversive consequences, because sense-making is reinforcing, particularly when it leads to experiential avoidance. The following series of experiments aimed to provide preliminary empirical evidence for this hypothesis by comparing college students' ...
Ninness, Chris - - 2012
Using 3 diversified datasets, we explored the pattern-recognition ability of the Self-Organizing Map (SOM) artificial neural network as applied to diversified nonlinear data distributions in the areas of behavioral and physiological research. Experiment 1 employed a dataset obtained from the UCI Machine Learning Repository. Data for this study were composed ...
Olstead, Riley - - 2012
Even while they advocate for qualitative, interpretive approaches to understanding panic disorder, sociologists and feminist geographers have taken the statistics on it at face value, conducting research with women because panic has been reported to be a gender-specific problem. We still lack a sociology that effectively considers men's experience of ...
Phillips, Joshua - - 2012
The prevailing system of patriarchy pushes certain voices out of the public sphere and toward the periphery. This constant attack on marginalized voices maintains the status quo and upholds ideologies that perpetuate sexism and gender violence. This essay offers insight into how Voice Male magazine uses vernacular rhetoric as social ...
Martin, Chante - - 2012
In A Lesson Before Dying (1993/1994), Ernest J. Gaines situates the courthouse, the jail, the home, and the church as central to the gendered racial consciousness of African American men and boys. With their distinctive American and keenly southern histories, each site holds particular significance to the lives of African ...
Neville, Patricia - - 2012
Research contends that men have lower help-seeking behaviour than women, especially on issues regarding mental health and lifestyle. While problem pages are considered to be a feminine genre, recent changes to the problem page format, namely the advent of the internet and the emergence of agony uncles, would appear to ...
Hall, Matthew - - 2012
The last two decades have seen a marked increase in men's self-presentation practices and the creation of a new identity category: "metrosexual" (Simpson, 1994, 2002). Here we examine men's makeup use, considered one of the more extreme indicators of "metrosexuality" (Harrison, 2008). We deploy a discursive analytic approach informed in ...
Amato, Felix - - 2012
This study examines violent men and utilizes gender role conflict theory and conformity to masculine norms as a framework to understand why men continue to victimize others through violence. The sample consisted of 258 detainees and prisoners located in New England. Multiple regression analyses compared violence, gender role conflict, and ...
Karakis, Emily - - 2012
This study investigated the relationships between Normative Male Alexithymia (NMA), Relationship Satisfaction, Fear of Intimacy, and Communication Quality among men in relationships. NMA is the inability of men to put emotions into words posited to result from traditional masculine role socialization, and reflected in the endorsement of and conformity to ...
Nuccitelli, Michael - - 2012
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