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Clark, Trenette - - 2011
The 1998 Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) was developed between states and tobacco manufacturers to settle the states' lawsuits against tobacco manufacturers and recover tobacco health-related costs. States won billions of dollars and concessions regarding how tobacco products could be advertised. The purpose of the MSA was to prevent cigarette ...
Granruth, Laura - - 2011
This research study examines the impact of the level of state tax code progressivity on selected children's health outcomes. Specifically, it examines the degree to which a state's tax code ranking along the progressive-regressive continuum relates to percentage of low birthweight babies, infant and child mortality rates, and percentage of ...
Williams, Kelly - - 2011
Using a representative national sample (N = 20,745), this article explores health and mental health needs, service use, and barriers to services among sexual minority youths (SMYs) and heterosexual peers. SMYs were defined by ever having a same-sex romantic attraction or having a recent same-sex romantic relationship or sexual partner. ...
Simons, Kelsey - - 2011
This study sought to identify client, professional, and employment characteristics that enhance licensed social workers' commitment to aging practice. A series of binary logistic regressions were performed using data from 181 licensed, full-time social workers who reported aging as their primary specialty area as part of the 2004 NASW's national ...
Montgomery, Katherine - - 2011
Social workers provide services to a variety of clients and are challenged with finding interventions that meet the multifaceted needs of diverse populations. Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is becoming an increasingly popular therapy that offers flexibility and effectiveness in treating challenging cases. The purpose of this review is to ...
Oluwafemi, F. - - 2011
Five million children aged less than five years die annually due to diarrhoea. The aim of the study was to identify some possible contributing factors for persistent diarrhoea. Seven weaning foods, including a locally-made food, were evaluated by estimating the microbial load using the most probable number method and aflatoxin ...
Khanam, Masuma - - 2011
Data on multimorbidity among the elderly people in Bangladesh are lacking. This paper reports the prevalence and distribution patterns of multimorbidity among the elderly people in rural Bangladesh. This cross-sectional study was conducted among persons aged >60 years in Matlab, Bangladesh. Information on their demographics and literacy was collected through ...
Gipson, Jessica - - 2011
Bangladesh has experienced a rapid decline in fertility in the past several decades, facilitated by proactive population policies, provision of contraceptives, and broader societal shifts, encouraging smaller families and use of contraceptive to achieve revised childbearing norms. This paper presents 18 years of data from the Sample Registration System, a ...
Gupta, Shivam - - 2011
Due to an urgent need for information on the coverage of health service for women and children after the fall of Taliban regime in Afghanistan, a multiple indicator cluster survey (MICS) was conducted in 2003 using the outdated 1979 census as the sampling frame. When 2004 pre-census data became available, ...
Sharkey, Alyssa - - 2011
To examine how health caregivers in under-resourced South African settings select from among the healthcare alternatives available to them during the final illness of their infants. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 39 caregivers of deceased infants in a rural community and an urban township. Nineteen local health providers and community ...
Dhakal, Sulochana - - 2011
In Nepal, most births take place at home, and many, particularly in rural areas, are not attended by a skilled birth attendant. The main objectives of the study were to assess the use of skilled delivery care and barriers to access such care in a rural community and to assess ...
Senbanjo, Idowu - - 2011
Stunting adversely affects the physical and mental outcome of children. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of and risk factors associated with stunting among urban school children and adolescents in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Five hundred and seventy children aged 5-19 years were selected using the multi-stage random-sampling ...
Olack, Beatrice - - 2011
Malnutrition in sub-Saharan Africa contributes to high rates of childhood morbidity and mortality. However, little information on the nutritional status of children is available from informal settlements. During the period of post-election violence in Kenya during December 2007-March 2008, food shortages were widespread within informal settlements in Nairobi. To investigate ...
Khatoon, Tahmina - - 2011
Integration of infant- and child-feeding index (ICFI) addressing the multidimensional child-feeding practices into one age-specific summary index is gaining importance. This cross-sectional study was aimed at understanding the association between the ICFI and the nutritional status of 259 children, aged 6-23 months, who attended the paediatric outpatient department of the ...
Kamiya, Yusuke - - 2011
The prevalence of undernutrition among Lao children is among the highest in the region. However, the determinants of childhood undernutrition in Laos have not been fully analyzed. This paper, using the dataset of the Lao Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 3, which is a nationally-representative sample in Laos, investigated the effects ...
Venkaiah, K. - - 2011
The prevalence of chronic energy deficiency (CED) among one-third of the Indian population is attributed to inadequacy of consumption of nutrients. However, considering the complexity of diets among Indians, the relationship between a particular dietary pattern and the nutritional status of the population has not been established so far. A ...
Schmidt, Wolf-Peter - - 2011
There is an ongoing interest in studying the effect of common recurrent infections and conditions, such as diarrhoea, respiratory infections, and fever, on the nutritional status of children at risk of malnutrition. Epidemiological studies exploring this association need to measure infections with sufficient accuracy to minimize bias in the effect ...
Oluwasola, A. - - 2011
In Africa, epidemiological data on the effect of the HIV epidemic on the occurrence of lymphomas are scanty. The 1990s witnessed the alarming rates of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. The prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria increased from 1.8% in 1991 to 4.4% in 2005. The aim of this study was to ...
Nwobegahay, Julius - - 2011
Data on antiretroviral drug resistance among drug-naive persons are important in developing sentinel and surveillance policies. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of antiretroviral drug resistance mutations among drug-naive HIV-infected individuals attending a voluntary testing and counselling centre at the Mankweng Hospital in northeastern South Africa. In total, ...
Alam, Nur - - 2011
Cholera involves stimulation of intestinal secretory process in response to cholera toxin leading to profuse watery diarrhoea that might cause death due to dehydration unless timely rehydration therapy is initiated. Efforts to identify and test potential antisecretory agents are ongoing. Antisecretory factor (AF) is a naturally-occurring protein produced in the ...
Ansari-Renani, H.R. - - 2011
In this study wool follicle characteristics of Iranian sheep breeds were investigated. A total of 242 male and female sheep of different age from 5 breeds were studied. Samples of skin were taken from the right midside to determine follicle characteristics. Overall averages for males and females were 3.7 [+ ...
Zeng, Z.K. - - 2011
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Trichoderma reesei derived phytase for pigs fed diets with fixed calcium to total phosphorus ratios (1.5:1). In Exp. 1, 280 weaned pigs (initial BW of 10.32 [+ or -] 1.94 kg) were allocated to one of five dietary treatments on the ...
Ly, Nguyen - - 2011
This study was conducted to determine the effect of the inclusion of different levels of ensiled cassava leaves (variety KM94) in the diets on performance and carcass characteristics of growing pigs in Vietnam. A total of 40 crossbreds pigs (Large White x Mong Cai, 20 males and 20 females) with ...
Cho, S.H. - - 2011
Compensatory growth of juvenile olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus fed different diets with different feeding regime was compared. Four hundred fifty fish (twenty five fish per tank) were randomly distributed into 18 of 180 L flow-through tanks. Six treatments were prepared: fish were hand-fed with the control (C) diet to satiation ...
Zhang, R.F. - - 2011
Lysine intake during gestation has a major impact on subsequent reproductive performance. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of lysine intake from mid-gestation until farrowing on the reproductive performance of multiparous sows. On day 30 of gestation, 200 Landracex Large White sows were randomly assigned to ...
Kim, J.D. - - 2011
Effect of dietary essential oils on growth, feed utilization and meat yields of white leg shrimp L. vannamei was investigated. White shrimp fry weighing 0.62 g were kept in one of 12 tanks (75 head/500 L holding tank) in a closed recirculation system. Four experimental diets, a commercial diet (control), ...
Erener, Guray - - 2011
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary green tea extract (GTE) on the performance, carcass and gastrointestinal tract (gut) traits, caecal coliform bacteria count, and pH and color (CIE L*, a*, and b*) values of the breast muscle in broilers. A total number of 600 day-old broilers ...
Sen, Sinol - - 2011
A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of Bacillus subtilis LS 1-2 grown on citrus-juice waste and corn-soybean substrate on growth performance, nutrient retention, caecal microbial population and intestinal morphology in broilers. Three hundred twenty d-old Ross chicks were randomly allotted to 4 treatments on ...
Silva, Thadeu - - 2011
The study aimed to evaluate the best level of licury oil in the diet of 3/4 Boer goats, as determined by profile analysis of commercial cuts on aspects of chemical composition, sensorial quality and fatty acid content. Nineteen male goats were used, with an initial weight of 10.8 kg/live weigh. ...
Van Thang, - - 2011
Two experiments under sham feeding conditions were conducted to determine whether or not ruminal distension brought about by feed boluses entering the rumen is a factor in the marked suppression of feed intake after 40 min of feeding. In experiment 1, a comparison was made between the intraruminal insertion of ...
Bulls, Nili-Ravi - - 2011
To evaluate the effects of replacing concentrate with urea molasses treated fermented wheat straw (FWS) ensiled with cattle manure (CM) on ruminal characteristics, in situ digestion kinetics and nitrogen (N) metabolism was studied in Nili Ravi cannulated buffalo bulls in a 4x4 Latin Square Design. Wheat straw treated with urea ...
Suharti, Sri - - 2011
This experiment was designed to investigate the effect of lerak extract on the dynamic of rumen microbes in the in vitro fermentation of diet with different ratios of forage and concentrate. In vitro fermentation was conducted according to the method of Tilley and Terry (1963). The design of experiment was ...
Van Thang, - - 2011
In large-type goats that were fed on dry forage twice daily, dry forage intake was markedly suppressed after 40 min of feeding had elapsed. The objective of this study was to clarify whether or not increases in plasma osmolality and subsequent thirst sensations produced by dry forage feeding suppress dry ...
Singh, R.P. - - 2011
The LDH isozymes are key catalysts in the glycolytic pathway of energy metabolism. It is well known that the distribution of the LDH isozymes vary in accordance with the metabolic requirements of different tissues. The ubstrates required for energy production change noticeably at successive stages of testes development suggesting a ...
Ara, Chaman - - 2011
The objective of this study was to assess the teratogenic and embryotoxic effects of clomiphene citrate in mice. The pregnant mice were administered a single dose of clomiphene citrate at different concentrations i.e 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 and 6.0 [micro]ig/g BW on day 8 of gestation. Fetuses recovered on day 18 ...
Ferreri, Miro - - 2011
The Chinese Holstein cattle breed, an introduced breed in China, has been crossbred with native cattle breeds. We hypothesised that the Chinese Holstein local population in Beijing share haplotypes with native Asian cattle breeds, the result of a sudden population expansion in the recent past. We also hypothesised that crossbreeding ...
Thiruvenkadan, A.K. - - 2011
Data on 2,365 Mecheri sheep (1,201 males and 1,164 females), maintained at the Mecheri Sheep Research Station, Pottaneri, India, and recorded between 1979 and 2006, were analysed to study the growth related traits and their genetic control. The body weights at different ages (i.e. at birth, weaning (3 months), 6, ...
Sarakul, M. - - 2011
The objective of this study was to characterize factors influencing genetic improvement of dairy cattle for milk production at farm level. Data were accumulated from 305-day milk yields and pedigree information from 1,921 first-lactation dairy cows that calved from 1990 to 2007 on 161 farms in Central Thailand. Variance components ...
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