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- - 2012
Paruk, Fathima - - 2012
Background. The emergence of multidrug-resistant, extensively resistant and pan-resistant pathogens and the widespread inappropriate use of antibiotics is a global catastrophe receiving increasing attention by health care authorities. The antibiotic prescription practices in public and private intensive care units (ICUs) in South Africa are unknown.
Sorsdahl, Katherine - - 2012
District hospitals regularly experience a high incidence of substance-use disorders, but rarely provide interventions. We describe the effectiveness of an intervention developed and implemented by a Western Cape hospital. Patients with probable substance use were referred to an on-site social worker for an alcohol, smoking and substance involvement screening test ...
de Villiers, Francis - - 2012
Background. Rotavirus is the most important aetiological agent causing severe gastroenteritis in children <2 years of age in South Africa and worldwide. Most endemic neonatal nursery strains are thought to be asymptomatic. However, serious conditions have been reported to be associated with rotavirus infection, such as necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), diffuse ...
Blumenthal, Ryan - - 2012
South Africa has a rich history of lightning research; however, research on the clinical and pathological effects and features of lightning-related injury (keraunomedicine or lightning medicine) remains neglected locally. By providing an overview of keraunomedicine and focussing on South African perspectives, we hope to raise awareness and propose that a ...
Ramsoomar, Leane - - 2012
Objectives. To understand alcohol use trends and alcohol-related harm among youth in South Africa (SA) between 1998 and 2008, and discuss implications for the current alcohol policy process.
Parry, Charles - - 2012
Evidence from burden of disease and economic costing studies amply indicate that the public health burden from hazardous and harmful use of alcohol in South Africa warrants drastic action. Evidence that banning alcohol advertising is likely to be an effective intervention is reflected in WHO strategy documents on non-communicable diseases ...
Seggie, Janet - - 2012
Cheong, J.Y. - - 2012
Objectives. The incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in intensive care units in Malaysia is significant. Invasive MRSA infections are commonly treated with vancomycin. In clinical practice, the serum vancomycin trough concentration is used as a surrogate marker of vancomycin efficacy. A low concentration of vancomycin may result in ...
Brink, Adrian - - 2012
New, effective antibiotics are only likely to become available in 15-20 years. To prevent deaths from untreatable Gram-negative infections in South Africa, the rights of any doctor, whether in general or in hospital practice, to indiscriminately prescribe whatever antibiotic they wish, and in whatever fashion, must be challenged. Furthermore, although ...
Phulukdaree, Alisa - - 2012
Background. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) detoxify environmental agents which influence the onset and progression of disease. Dysfunctional detoxification enzymes are responsible for prolonged exposure to reactive molecules and can contribute to endothelial damage, an underlying factor in coronary artery disease (CAD).
Dandara, Collet - - 2012
Objective. Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare genetic condition in which progressive ossification of fibrous tissue, tendons and ligaments leads to severe physical handicap. Most affected individuals who have been studied have a recurrent 617G>A mutation in the ACVR1/ALK2 gene that codes for activin A type 1 receptor/activin-like kinase ...
Stefan, Daniela - - 2012
The South African Children's Tumour Registry was established 25 years ago as it was essential to collect data on malignant disease in the paediatric population that can be used for statistical research in an efficient and sustainable way. The Registry is a useful and significant repository of specific paediatric data, ...
Schade, Jennifer - - 2012
In teleost fishes, 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) is a critical androgen regulating primary and secondary sex characteristics. In the sexually dimorphic Lythrurus fasciolaris (Cyprinidae), dominant nuptial males display heavy tuberculation on the head and nape, dark dorsolateral vertical bars, and dramatic red coloration in the fins, venter, and operculum area. This study ...
Pendleton, Richard - - 2012
Many North American minnows (Cyprinidae) exhibit nest association, a spawning mode in which one species (associate) uses nests constructed by another species (host). Although this relationship may be obligate for some species, many nest associates can use alternative reproductive modes, indicating that the strength of the relationship between associate and ...
Mundahl, Neal - - 2012
Slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus are being reintroduced into coldwater streams in southeastern Minnesota to restore native biotic diversity and provide forage for large trout, but success has been variable. We examined slimy sculpin diets and prey consumption in a series of field and laboratory experiments to assess the potential role ...
Mundahl, Neal - - 2012
Slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus are being reintroduced into coldwater streams in the upper Midwestern United States, where they were extirpated by stream degradation during the early- to mid-1900s. Habitat use and selection by slimy sculpin were examined in nine coldwater tributaries of the Upper Mississippi River in southeastern Minnesota to ...
Gorney, Rebecca - - 2012
We characterized coldwater stream fish community response to habitat degradation and channelization for agriculture. Coldwater streams are not common in the lower midwestern United States, and these streams differ from warmwater streams with respect to their diversity and community response to degradation. Six sites were sampled on the coldwater Mac-o-chee ...
Webster, J.R. - - 2012
The death of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) trees in response to infestation by the introduced hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) may affect ecosystem processes and structure of streams. Prior to hemlock mortality, we documented the conditions of eight small streams and their associated riparian forests within the Appalachian Mountains of ...
Stucky, J.M. - - 2012
Pollination biology and factors affecting reproductive success of the federally endangered Echinacea laevigata (coneflower) were studied in one large and five small populations. Insect visitor exclusion from flowering heads and pollination treatments showed that seed production was 10x higher in open-pollinated treatments compared to bagged flowers that were not pollinated ...
Knopp, Peter - - 2012
Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) has been described as an opportunistic, pioneer species adapted to mesic sites, though its presence and site-specific occurrence in extreme soil-water conditions is not well understood. Fifty woodlots were investigated for the presence of Q. rubra on the Maumee lake plain of southeastern Michigan. ...
Howard, Jerome - - 2012
Human alterations of the environment may interact with natural disturbances to alter the characteristics of biological communities in unexpected ways. I studied vegetation plots in a leveed bottomland hardwood forest at Bayou Sauvage National Wildlife Refuge near New Orleans, LA to determine how Hurricane. Katrina affected the woody plant community ...
McEwan, Ryan - - 2012
Invasive species usurp habitat space at the expense of natives, reducing biodiversity and altering ecosystem function. The non-native invasive shrub Amur honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii) is known to have substantial effects on forest structure and biodiversity in Midwestern North America; however, its influence on nutrient cycling is relatively unexplored. We investigated ...
Hickerson, Cari-Ann - - 2012
Intraguild predation in structurally complex habitats is thought to weaken trophic cascades and increase food web stability. However, many predators commonly found in leaf litter become restricted to simple microhabitat beneath rocks and logs during periods between rains. It is within this structurally simple microhabitat that some predators defend rich ...
Kappler, Rachel - - 2012
Wild blue lupine (Lupinus perennis) in the Oak Openings Region of Northwest Ohio is an important nitrogen fixer and serves as an essential food source for the federally endangered Karner Blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis). In order to examine potential factors that might be affecting mice predation on wild blue ...
Kwit, Charles - - 2012
The advantages of ant-mediated seed dispersal for myrmecochorous plants have often been framed in the context of directed dispersal and predator avoidance. Underlying and intertwining themes in these frameworks are the services of (a) moving seeds away from parent plants, (b) placing seeds in safe and ideal locations and occasionally, ...
Rose, Robert - - 2012
In this report of substantial syntopic populations, southern bog lemmings (Synaptomys cooperi) and woodland voles [Microtus (Pitymys) pinetorum] were the co-dominant rodents in a grassy oldfield in the absence of the large-bodied species of rodents common to the region. Southern bog lemmings achieved densities of 14 [ha.sup.-1] on one grid ...
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