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Results 401 - 450 of 676
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Geruschat, Duane - - 2012
Reutemann, Andrea - - 2012
This work presents the basics for interpreting the adult inflorescence structure in Cyperaceae. It provides an analysis of the variations of the synflorescence and inflorescence structure in the family. Three types of synflorescence may be recognized in this family: a synflorescence with a foliate stem, a terminal inflorescence and a ...
Olson, Mark - - 2012
For nearly a century the so-called Major Trends of Xylem Evolution have guided thinking regarding wood evolution, but their conceptual foundations have not been examined. I detail and critique nine tenets of Major Trends thinking, including the use of linear schemes to infer phylogeny, the Haeckelian assumption that ontogeny recapitulates ...
Carlquist, Sherwin - - 2012
Five sources of data force extensive revision of ideas about the nature and evolution of monocot xylem: scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies of thick sections; availability of molecular phylogenies covering a relatively large number of families and genera; information on ecology and habitat; data concerning habit; and observations from xylem ...
Boyles, Tom - - 2012
Bipath, P. - - 2012
Objectives. To compare the value of procalcitonin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and neopterin as indicators of immune deficiency, co-infection, efficacy of treatment, and disease progression, in patients with advanced HIV-1 infection.
Gounden, Shivona - - 2012
Objective. To determine whether the -308 TNF-[alpha] promoter polymorphism is associated with markers of HIV progression in the South African population.
Laher, Fatima - - 2012
Objective. There are few data from before the antiretroviral therapy (ART) era for cytomegalovirus retinitis (CMV-R) from settings where cost limits use of systemic treatment. This study examines CMV-R treatment and survival outcomes in a public hospital ophthalmology service in Ga-Rankuwa, South Africa.
Shaddock, E.J. - - 2012
Background. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) is one of the most common opportunistic infections found in patients with HIV. The prognosis if ventilation is required is poor, with mortality of 36-80%. Although more recent studies have shown improved survival, our experience has been that close to 100% of such patients die, and ...
Mlawanda, Ganizani - - 2012
Background. Analytical variability in CD4 enumeration is well known, but few studies from southern Africa have quantified the inter-and intra-laboratory variability in CD4 count measurements. In addition, the possible impact of time lapse after sample collection on CD4 reliability is not well understood.
Osih, Regina - - 2012
Schowalter, Laurie - - 2012
Shortages of the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) abacavir and tenofovir have been reported recently at health facilities across South Africa. The Society issued the following clinical advice to healthcare providers experiencing shortages on 29 March 2012. These recommendations are intended only as a guide to clinical therapy, based on ...
Conradie, Francesca - - 2012
Myer, Landon - - 2012
Scheibe, A. - - 2012
Background. The use of oral antiretrovirals to prevent HIV infection among HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) has been shown to be safe and efficacious. A large, randomised, placebo-controlled trial showed a 44% reduction in the incidence of HIV infection among MSM receiving a daily oral fixed-dose combination ...
van den Berg, - - 2012
Despite numerous publications on the appropriate use of blood and blood products, few specifically consider the role of transfusion in the management of HIV. This review is a synthesis of conditions encountered in the management of HIV-infected patients where the transfusion of blood or blood products may be indicated. A ...
Phillips, C. - - 2012
Behr, Spencer - - 2012
Tarbox, Daniel - - 2012
Bolan, Cristen - - 2012
Jerome, J. Terrence - - 2012
Mikityansky, Igor - - 2012
Braun, Clait - - 2012
Norwood, Gregory - - 2012
Chartier, Allen - - 2012
Bostwick, Kimberly - - 2012
Wunderle, Joseph M., - - 2012
Hawkins, Gerard - - 2012
Howell et al. (2003) proposed modifications to the system of molt terminology for birds developed by Humphrey and Parkes (1959) to address a perceived inconsistency in the Humphrey- Parkes ('H-P') system that Howell et al. (2003) termed the 'first basic problem'. These modifications have been adopted by mainstream ornithological literature, ...
Yosef, Reuven - - 2012
The House Crow (Corvus splendens) is a bioinvader to the Red Sea region and has been shown to negatively impact indigenous species. We describe attempts by House Crows to acquire an ordinarily inaccessible, high quality food source by mobbing Western Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) in large coordinated groups. The crows mobbed ...
Sazima, Ivan - - 2012
Darters (Anhingidae) are among the most territorial Pelecaniformes, but most of the observed aggression is between males and limited primarily to the breeding season. We observed three instances of agonistic interactions between two female Anhingas (Anhinga anhinga) foraging in a pond of an urban park in southeastern Brazil. A foraging ...
Ostrand, Susan - - 2012
We observed Eastern Meadowlark (Sturnella magna) nests in Conservation Reserve Program grasslands in east-central Illinois to examine the influence of the surrounding agricultural landscape on nestling diets. Esophageal ligatures were applied to 3and 6-day old nestlings to examine food items brought to the nest. The most common items were spiders ...
Halley, Matthew - - 2012
We present the first documentation of nestling care by multiple male feeders at nests of the Veery (Catharus fuscescens) in a Mid-Atlantic Piedmont forest in northern Delaware. This is only the second confirmation of this behavior in a Nearcticneotropical migrant songbird. Five of six nests (83%) were attended by a ...
Pease, Shannon - - 2012
Evolutionary theory predicts birds should adjust the sex ratio of their broods in response to external factors that differentially affect the reproductive value of each sex. We examined the brood sex ratio in the Lilac-crowned Parrot (Amazona finschi) in relation to climate, hatching date, and hatching order. We used polymerase ...
Gow, Elizabeth - - 2012
We report an unusual case of a monogamous pair of Northern Flickers (Colaptes auratus) initiating a second clutch while there were still nestlings in the first nest. The male and female incubated at both nests but only the male fed nestlings at the first nest. The second nest attempt was ...
Lowther, Peter - - 2012
I monitored the breeding biology of House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) in a suburban colony in Cook County, Illinois, USA. 1 found a significant statistical correlation between clutch size and the base area of the nest box (r = 0.592, P < 0.0029) with mean clutch size varying from 4.49 eggs ...
Martinez, Manuel A. - - 2012
The Orange-eared Tanager (Chlorochrysa calliparea) occurs from southern Colombia to northern Bolivia between 900 and 2,000 m elevation. We describe for the first time the nest of the genus Chlorochrysa, based on five nests of C. calliparea, and provide information on incubation and nestling growth from August through December 2009 ...
Loss, Scott - - 2012
I observed an exceptionally high density of Hermit Thrush (Catharus guttatus) nests (3.1 nests/ha) over two breeding seasons in an isolated 1.3-ha portion of an earthworm-free study site in the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest, Wisconsin. This density was much greater than the 0.1 to 0.6 nests/ha observed over the rest of ...
Taff, Conor - - 2012
A mated female was observed singing in a color-banded population of Common Yellowthroats (Geothlypis trichas) in New York State in 2011. This female continued to sing, often concurrently with her mate, for ~1 week, at which time she completed nest construction and was not observed singing for the remainder of ...
Vogt, David - - 2012
We examined stopover site fidelity by Tennessee Warblers (Oreothlypis peregrina) at two Tennessee banding stations (Whigg Meadow and Big Bald) operated during fall migration, ~1,000 km from the nearest breeding areas. We captured and banded 4,324 Tennessee Warblers at Whigg Meadow from 1999 to 2008 with 14 individuals (0.3%) recaptured ...
Wuczynski, Andrzej - - 2012
Two cases of prolonged incubation by White Storks (Ciconia ciconia) were observed in the same nest in 2009 and 2010 in southwest Poland. Incubation lasted at least 59 and 65 days, respectively; i.e., 84 and 103% longer than the average incubation period. Extended incubation was accompanied by other abnormal breeding ...
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