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Mwangome, Martha - - 2010
Health education and awareness involves providing knowledge about causes of illness and choices to promote a change in individual behaviour and, thus, improves survival of individuals. Studies have, however, shown that improved knowledge and awareness is not always translated into appropriate actions. This study aimed at exploring the factors determining ...
Glew, Robert - - 2010
The Fulani are semi-nomadic pastoralists of West Africa whose diet, culture, and economy are centred on cattle. Previous studies have shown that the Fulani of northern Nigeria derive 50% of their total calories from fat and 30% of their calories from milk, cheese, yogurt, and butter oil that contain significant ...
Thomas, M. - - 2010
This study evaluated the magnitude and distribution of acute gastrointestinal illness (GI) in Galvez, Argentina, and assessed the outcome of a seven-day versus 30-day recall period in survey methodology. A cross-sectional population survey, with either a seven-day or a 30-day retrospective recall period, was conducted through door-to-door visits to randomly-selected ...
Semba, Richard - - 2010
Vitamin A supplementation reduces child morbidity, mortality, and blindness. The coverage of the national vitamin A programme and risk factors for not receiving vitamin A were characterized using data from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2004. Of 3,745 children aged 18-59 months, 3,237 (86.4%) received a vitamin A capsule ...
Hashemipour, Mahin - - 2010
Despite long-standing supplementation of iodine in Iran, the prevalence of goitre among general people remains high in some regions. The study investigated the role of iron status in the aetiology of goitre in school children in Isfahan, Iran. Two thousand three hundred and thirty-one school children were selected by multi-stage ...
Sarkar, Kamalesh - - 2010
A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among injecting drug-users (IDUs) of the northeastern states of India to understand the host genetic factors that confer resistance to HIV infection. The study aimed at assessing the existence and magnitude of genetic mutations of chemokine receptors, such as CCR2-64I, CCR-5 D-32, and SDF-1-3'A, ...
Llanes, Rafael - - 2010
The study evaluated the antibiotic resistance patterns of Helicobacter pylori strains against metronidazole and clarithromycin in a hospital in Havana, Cuba. Eighty-five percent, 22.5%, and 10% of 40 H. pylori strains investigated were resistant to metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, and clarithromycin respectively but all were susceptible to amoxicillin and tetracycline. RdxA truncation ...
Rundi, Christina - - 2010
Malaysia is a country with the intermediate burden of tuberculosis (TB). TB is still a public-health problem in Sabah, one of the two states in East Malaysia. In 2007, the state of Sabah contributed slightly more than 3,000 of 16,129 new and relapse cases reported in the country. It has ...
Ishii, Kotaro - - 2010
Silene latifolia is a model dioecious plan! with morphologically distinguishable XY sex chromosomes. The end of the Xq arm is quite different from that of the Yp arm, although both are located at opposite ends of their respective chromosomes relative to a pseudo-aulosomal region. The Xq arm does not seem ...
Czernicka, Matgorzata - - 2010
Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) has been proved to be the most effective and accurate technique for confirmation of hybrid character. The objective of our study was to adapt and optimize a GISH protocol for identification of donor chromatin in hybrids obtained by interspecific crosses between five Rhododendron taxa (R. ...
Herrmann, Doris - - 2010
A reliable data set is a fundamental prerequisite for consistent results and conclusions in population genetic studies. However, marker scoring of genetic fingerprints such as amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) is a highly subjective procedure, inducing inconsistencies owing to personal or laboratory-specific criteria. We applied two alternative marker selection algorithms, ...
Hirano, R. - - 2010
Mango (Mangifura indica) is believed to have evolved in a large area spanning northeastern India. Bangladesh, and northwestern Myanmar. We compared the genetic structure of mango accessions from Myanmar with that of mango accessions from Florida, India, and Southeast Asia with 11 SSR markers. The Myanmar accessions exhibited considerable genetic ...
Dermauw, Wannes - - 2010
In this study we sequenced and analysed the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of the Chilean predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriol (Chelicerala: Acari: Mesostigmata; Phytoseiidae: Amblyseiinae). The 16 199 bp genome (79.8% AT) contains the standard set of 13 protein-coding and 24 RNA genes. Compared with the ancestral arthropod mtDNA pattern, ...
Kawanishi, Yuki - - 2010
We found a number of male-sterile plants in a wild beet (Bern vulgaris L. subsp. mariiima) accession line, FR4-31. The inheritance study of the male sterility indicated the trait to be of the cytoplasmic type. The mitochondrial genome of FR4-31 proved to lack the male-sterility-associated genes preSatp6 and orf129, which ...
Mayerhofer, Reinhold - - 2010
A set of SSR and RFLP markers for safflower (Carthamus tmctorius) and jeweled distaff thistle (C. oxyacanthus) was generated from cDNA and genomic libraries and by mining public and proprietary sequence databases. In total, 1412 PCR-based markers and 75 RFLP markers were screened and polymorphic loci were mapped in an ...
Hatakeyama, Katsunori - - 2010
The level of self-incompatibility (SI) is important to the purity of [F.sub.1] seeds produced using the SI system of Brassica vegetables. To analyze the genetic basis of the level of SI, we generated an [F.sub.2] population derived from a cross between a turnip inbred line showing a high level of ...
Leduc, Antoine - - 2010
Fish rely on both chemical and visual cues to evaluate predation risk. Decisions with respect to activity partitioning in time (i.e., night vs. day) rely on accurate assessment of predation risk relative to energy intake; predation risk is generally thought to be lower at night at the expense of feeding ...
Mackas, R.H. - - 2010
Breeding at high elevations can favour life-history strategies in which parents shift to investing in higher quality rather than higher numbers of offspring. In American Dippers (Cinclus mexicanus Swainson, 1827), altitudinal migrants produce fewer fledglings than sedentary individuals (residents) that breed at lower elevations. We examined whether migrants compensate for ...
Mauguit, Q. - - 2010
Fish larvae experience fundamental morphological, physiological, and physical changes from hatching to adulthood. All of these changes have an effect on the locomotor movements observed in the larvae. We describe the development of swimming movements in larval bronze corydoras (Corydoras aeneus (Gill, 1858); Ostariophysi, Siluriformes) during their ontogeny. Swimming movements ...
Bernard, Nadine - - 2010
The diet of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba (Scopoli, 1769)) was studied over an 8-year period in the Jura mountains of France, during two population surges of its main rodent prey (common voles, Microtus arvalis (Pallas, 1778), and European water voles, Arvicola terrestris (L.,1758)), allowing us to test whether T. ...
Taylor, Zachary - - 2010
The landscape of the Great Lakes region has been fragmented since the lakes formed starting about 20 000 years ago. Small mammals, such as deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus (Wagner, 1845)), inhabiting the region therefore face barriers to migration and gene flow, which could complicate ongoing range shifts related to climate ...
Welsh, A.B. - - 2010
Many populations of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens Rafinesque, 1817) are below historic population sizes, and migration barriers have likely contributed to some of these population declines. Dams and natural barriers can potentially isolate populations along a single river and can have a strong effect on the ability of lake sturgeon ...
Emond, Kim - - 2010
Previous studies of relative growth in crustaceans have focused primarily on body parts representing sexual characters for the purpose of determining size at onset of sexual maturity. We have revisited the relative growth of abdomen and crusher claw in American lobster (Homarus americanus H. Milne Edwards, 1837) in a general ...
Mickelson, L.E. - - 2010
The journey of Leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea (Vandelli, 1761)) hatchlings from nest to the sea is a vulnerable life-history stage. Studies have shown that nest incubation temperatures influence hatchling morphology and locomotor performance, which may affect hatchling fitness. We obtained incubation temperature profiles from 16 Leatherback nests in Tobago, West Indies, ...
Imazaki, Iori - - 2010
Bacterial culture based on the use of plate media is an effective method for investigating bacterial populations in the environment. To improve the culturability of bacteria from freshwater lakes, we developed a new medium, FW70, which contains sodium pyruvate, casamino acids, and lake water and is solidified using gellan gum. ...
Hirai, Itaru - - 2010
Chlamydia pneumoniae (Chlamydophila pneumoniae) infects lymphocytes and modulates their immune functions; this is critical in the development of chronic inflammatory diseases associated with this pathogen. Therefore, to clarify this immune modulation due to C. pneumoniae infection, the effect of this infection on the proliferation of human peripheral blood lymphocytes was ...
Mittman, Scott - - 2010
Rapid and accurate identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae is a critical component in the optimal management of infected patients. The performance of the BD Phoenix Automated Microbiology System (BD Diagnostic Systems, Sparks, Md.) was evaluated for identification of S. pneumoniae (n = 311) and was compared to the Vitek 2 (bioMeerieux, ...
Kubrak, Olha - - 2010
As a result of screening Bacillus sp. strains isolated from different natural substrates, strain BKL20 was identified as a producer of a thermostable alkaline [alpha]-amylase. Maximum production of this [alpha]-amylase was achieved by optimizing culture conditions. Production of [alpha]-amylase seemed to be independent of the presence of starch in the ...
Khalilzadeh, Pouneh - - 2010
The discovery of quorum sensing (QS) communication systems regulating bacterial virulence has afforded a novel opportunity for controlling infectious bacteria by interfering with QS. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an example of an opportunistic human pathogen for which N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-related compounds have been described as potent inhibitors of biofilm formation ...
Serrato, R.V. - - 2010
Bacteria from the genus Herbaspirillum are endophytes responsible for nitrogen fixation in gramineous plants of economic importance such as maize, sugarcane, sorghum, rice, and wheat. Some species are known to produce plant growth substances. In contrast, Herbaspirillum rubrisubalbicans strains are known to be mild plant pathogens. The molecular communication between ...
Fratamico, Pina - - 2010
The O-antigen gene clusters of Escherichia coli serogroups O2 and O28ac were sequenced, and PCR assays were developed to identify strains belonging to these 2 serogroups. Sixteen and 8 open reading frames were mapped to these loci in E. coli O2:H4 U 9-41 and E. coli O28ac:H25 96-3286, respectively. The ...
Li, Junmin - - 2010
To explore changes in the structure and diversity of activated sludge-derived microbial communities during adaptation to gradual increases in the concentration of wastewater, RAPD-PCR and the combination of PCR amplification of 16S rRNA genes with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis were used. In bacterial communities exposed to 0%, 5%, ...
Shih, Chao-Jen - - 2010
Methanohalophilus portucalensis FDF1 can grow over a range of external NaCl concentrations, from 1.2 to 2.9 mol/L. Differential gene expression in response to long-term hyper-salt stress (3.1 mol/L of NaCl) and hypo-salt stress (0.9 mol/L of NaCl) were compared by differential display RT-PCR. Fourteen differentially expressed genes responding to long-term ...
Deak, Eszter - - 2010
A Candida-specific Luminex-based assay with 11 probes was employed for multiplexed, rapid identification of 1182 Candida sp. isolates that were received as part of an ongoing population-based surveillance. All the Candida isolates were previously identified by a combination of methods, including phenotype and sequence analysis. Results showed that the Luminex ...
Peterson, R. - - 2010
Bjork, Curtis - - 2010
A region of contrastively wetter and milder climate occurs in inland northwest North America, separated from similar climates of the Pacific coast by 200--400 km. Researchers have long noted that numerous vascular plants divide their ranges between the interior wetbelt and coastal regions, although many such disjunctions have hitherto gone ...
Goward, Trevor - - 2010
Hypogymnia metaphysodes was first described from Japan and Sakhalin, and later reported from western North America. Here we show that the North American material currently referred to H. metaphysodes differs from that species not only morphologically and chemically, but also in ascospore size and shape. We also show that the ...
Piercey-Normore, Michele - - 2010
Cladonia arbuscula (Wallr.) Flotow sensu lato is a widespread species complex traditionally divided among several subspecies on the basis of thallus morphology and secondary chemistry. Here we examine the evolutionary relationships of four of these segregates, C. arbuscula subsp. beringiana Ahti, C. arbuscula subsp. squarrosa (Wallr.) Burgaz, C. mitis Sandst., ...
Allen, N. - - 2010
A new species, Octoblepharum arthrocormoides Salazar Allen & B.C. Tan, is described from tropical Asia. In its erect, stiff and fragile leaves, the new species resembles Arthrocormus in physical appearance but differs from all other Asiatic Octoblepharum species. The new species shares features with the neotropical species, O. ampullaceum, having ...
Brodo, Irwin - - 2010
A species of Lecanora in the L. dispersa group, with a well-developed pale thallus and a granular epihymenium, resembling L. albescens, is found exclusively on shoreline rocks and appears to be new. It is described as Lecanora schofieldii sp. nov., found mainly in the Pacific Northwest, but also rarely on ...
Sadler, Kella - - 2010
Rare plants and their habitats are integral to the conservation of biodiversity in many areas. With increasing habitat destruction and fragmentation, there is an urgent need to identify elements of diversity that are at risk, to adequately address conservation priorities, and successfully implement management strategies. In this research project, plant ...
Baldwin, L.K. - - 2010
The resilience (measured as changes in functional group representation and species composition) of bryophyte communities found in the younger-aged ("matrix") forests surrounding old-growth remnants was examined in two different forest lypes, warmer, drier (Nimpkish) versus cooler, wetter (Sayward), on Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Bryophytes were sampled within 10 m x ...
Bednarek-Ochyra, Halina - - 2010
Niphotrichum muticum (Kindb.) Frisvoll is recorded for the first time from the Aleutian Islands where it was collected on three islands, namely Kiska Island in the Rat Islands group, Adak Island in the Andreanof Islands group, and Unalaska Island in the Fox Islands group. The Aleutian plants are briefly described ...
Talbot, Stephen - - 2010
Plant communities of Unalaska Island in the eastern Aleutian Islands of western Alaska, and their relationship to environmental variables, were studied using a combined Braun-Blanquet and multivariate approach. Seventy releves represented the range of structural and compositional variation in the matrix of vegetation and landform zonation. Eleven major community types ...
Buck, William - - 2010
The African species of the moss genus Schwetschkea are revised based on morphological features of the gametophye and sporophyte. The genus is placed in the Brachytheciaceae. Three species are recognized, S. fabronioides (S. schweinfurthii, S. monbuttoviae, S. brotheri, syn. nov.), S. usambarica, and S. grateloupii. A key to these species ...
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