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Results 551 - 600 of 1122
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McTernan, C.N. - - 2010
Neuromuscular blocking agents are often avoided in anticipated difficult airway scenarios. However, to facilitate jet ventilation, muscle relaxants are useful. We report a case of a potentially threatened airway in a 21-year-old with a large infraglottic pedunculated polyp. In this case rocuronium was used on induction to facilitate subsequent jet ...
Buzzigoli, S.B. - - 2010
Guillain-Barre syndrome includes acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, acute motor axonal neuropathy, acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy, Miller Fisher syndrome and acute pandysautonomia. Plasma exchange was the first treatment in Guillain-Barre syndrome proven to be superior to supportive treatment alone and intravenous immunoglobulin was subsequently shown to be equally effective ...
Lai, C.F. - - 2010
Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia is a genetic condition which results in arteriovenous malformations involving the skin, mucous membranes, lung, brain, gastrointestinal tract, liver and spinal canal. The shunting of blood through arteriovenous malformations, especially in the liver, leads to maldistribution of cardiac output. In order to supply blood to vital organs, ...
Blumenstein, J. - - 2010
We describe the transcranial Doppler pattern during a period of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a patient undergoing a transcatheter off-pump aortic valve implantation. Transcranial Doppler of the middle cerebral artery flow was measured as a part of a separate ongoing study. The patient developed a cardiac arrest during deployment of the ...
Guterres, A.P. - - 2010
A 30-year-old woman developed total spinal anaesthesia during establishment of labour analgesia via an epidural catheter. The subsequent respiratory failure was successfully managed with noninvasive ventilation. This report describes the use of non-invasive ventilation in the parturient and the process of managing the parturient safely in an appropriately monitored environment. ...
Scott, A. - - 2010
The recently emerged novel influenza A H1N1 virus continues to spread globally. The use of oseltamivir for treatment and prophylaxis of infection is recommended and its use has climbed steeply although there is little data available on its benefit in critically unwell patients with H1N1 influenza. A rare side-effect of ...
Cartwright, B.L. - - 2010
The presence of lupus anticoagulant and the related condition antiphospholipid syndrome present a challenge in cardiac surgery where measured anticoagulation may not reflect the in vivo patient status of hypercoagulation. We report the successful management of a patient with lupus anticoagulant presenting for aortic valve replacement and coronary revascularisation. We ...
Yang, J. - - 2010
We present two cases of children who developed compartment syndrome after upper limb fractures. Morphine patient-controlled analgesia was used in a bolus-only mode for analgesia (bolus 20 [micro]/kg, five minute lockout and hourly limit of 150 [micro]/kg). An increase in patient-controlled analgesia use was observed up to 12 hours before ...
Dooney, N.M. - - 2010
The provision of specialist anaesthetic services to rural and remote locations in Australia poses an ongoing challenge. Initiatives to improve delivery of specialist anaesthetic services include the provision of anaesthesia training opportunities at rural hospitals. Previous surveys of trainees demonstrated the positive effect of rural training on attitudes toward subsequent ...
Babitu, U.Q. - - 2010
Communication between patients and anaesthetists is being recognised as an increasingly important aspect of clinical care. Patients need to understand the nature and consequences of any proposed procedure prior to giving informed consent. In this regard, anaesthetists have a responsibility to provide adequate information about anaesthesia and related procedures in ...
Barker, E.J. - - 2010
The air-Q Intubating Laryngeal Airway (ILA) is a newly introduced extraglottic airway device. In this pilot study, we evaluated its use as a routine airway device during positive pressure ventilation. Ease of endotracheal intubation through the device was also assessed. Fifty-nine ASA I and II patients undergoing elective surgery received ...
Suk, E.H. - - 2010
Internal jugular veins (IJV) are commonly used to obtain central venous access. However, percutaneous cannulation of the IJV is difficult in infants and young children because of its diminutive size. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of skin traction on the cross-sectional area of the IJV ...
Sturgess, D.J. - - 2010
Aortic corrected flow time (FTc) is easily measured by Doppler techniques. Recent data using transoesophageal Doppler suggest that it may predict fluid responsiveness in critical care. This use of FTc has not previously been evaluated in septic shock, nor have any studies incorporated transcutaneously measured FTc. Furthermore, no comparison has ...
Viviani, M. - - 2010
We undertook a prospective observational cohort study in intensive care unit (ICU) patients requiring mechanical ventilation for four days or more to evaluate normal and abnormal bacterial carriage on admission detected by surveillance cultures of throat and rectum. We assessed the importance of surveillance and diagnostic cultures for the early ...
Namendys-Silva, S.A. - - 2010
The mortality and prognostic factors for patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with solid tumours are unclear. The aim of this study was to describe demographic, clinical and survival data and to identify factors associated with mortality in critically ill patients with solid tumours. A prospective observational cohort ...
Zeden, J.-P. - - 2010
It has recently been shown that an increased plasma level of the tryptophan catabolite kynurenine is an early indicator for the development of sepsis in major trauma patients. We examined the predictive value of kynurenine pathway activity for ongoing sepsis in patients being admitted to a surgical intensive care unit ...
Hiller, J. - - 2010
Major trauma patients who are intubated and ventilated are exposed to the potential risk of iatrogenic hypercapnic and hypocapnic physiological stress. In the pre-hospital setting, end-tidal capnography is used as a practical means of estimating arterial carbon dioxide concentrations and to guide the adequacy of ventilation. In our study, potentially ...
Hamm, J.-B. - - 2010
Many devices are available to assess cardiac output (CO) in critically ill patients and in the operating room. Classical CO monitoring via a pulmonary artery catheter involves continuous cardiac output (CCO) measurement. The second generation of Flotrac/Vigileo[TM] monitors propose an analysis of peripheral arterial pulse waves to calculate CO (APCO) ...
Kim, J.T. - - 2010
This randomised controlled study assessed whether continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) of 10 cm[H.sub.2]O during cardiopulmonary bypass improves post-bypass oxygenation in children compared with no CPAP during bypass. We studied children with a ventricular septal defect. CPAAP of 10 cm[H.sub.2]O was applied during bypass in the CPAP group (n=24), whereas ...
Garg, A. - - 2010
Fentanyl is a short-acting synthetic opioid with spinal analgesic properties and dose-dependent side-effects. The analgesic effect of opioids is mediated in part through activation of inhibitory descending pain pathways involving nitric oxide (as a central neurotransmitter) through the NO-cGMP system. This NO-cGMP pathway plays an important role in spinal nociception. ...
Desai, S. - - 2010
It is common practice to mix opioids with hyperbaric bupivacaine in a single syringe before intrathecal injection of the mixture. Mixing these drugs may alter the density of the hyperbaric solution, affecting the spread of local anaesthetic and opioid. Forty-eight women having elective caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia were recruited ...
Jeffcote, T. - - 2010
Recent evidence suggests that using intravenous isotonic albumin solution for haemodynamic resuscitation in neurotrauma is associated with adverse outcomes. This study assessed the correlations between cerebrospinal fluid protein concentrations, serum albumin concentrations and intracranial pressure in a cohort of neurosurgical patients. After obtaining ethics committee approval, correlations between concomitant cerebrospinal ...
Jones, D. - - 2010
Over the last ten years more reliable information regarding the risks and benefits of the use of albumin for fluid resuscitation has emerged. To determine what influence this has had on clinical practice, we sought to document albumin use (from mass of albumin supplied to hospitals) in 16 industrialised countries ...
Warrillow, S.J. - - 2010
Perioperative fluid therapy and associated outcomes of patients undergoing major elective open gastrointestinal surgery are poorly understood. This study measured perioperative fluid therapy, complication rates and outcomes for major elective open gastrointestinal surgery in a tertiary care hospital. We obtained demographic data, operative details, fluid prescription, complications and outcomes in ...
Holborow, J. - - 2010
Regional anaesthesia for bilateral upper limb surgery can be challenging, yet surgeons are becoming increasingly interested in performing bilateral procedures at the same operation. Anaesthetists have traditionally avoided bilateral brachial plexus block due to concerns about local anaesthetic toxicity, phrenic nerve block and pneumothorax. We discuss these three concerns and ...
Killen, J. - - 2010
While insulin remains the mainstay of managing type 1 diabetes, much has changed over the last 15 years. These changes should help in managing patients with type 1 diabetes during the perioperative period. More flexible insulin therapy has three components: 1) basal, 2) prandial and 3) corrective. Many patients, particularly ...
Duncan, A.W. - - 2010
Westhorpe, R.N. - - 2010
Yurekoglu, Ipek - - 2010
Pneumococcal disease is a leading cause of serious illness in children and the global burden of disease due to Streptococcus pneumoniae remains high. The licensed 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vCRM) has successfully reduced invasive disease in the USA, but serotype coverage is incomplete and some evidence suggests that serotype replacement ...
Salman, Nuran - - 2010
S.pneumoniae is the most important pathogen causing invasive disease such as meningitis and sepsis. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines are vaccines designed to protect children from invasive diseases. Glaxo Smith Kline's novel 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PHID-CV) includes serotypes 1.5 and 7F which are not in the 7-valent vaccine (Prevenar). Nontypeable H. ...
Bakir, Mustafa - - 2010
Epidemiologic data related to pneumococcal diseases are very limited in Turkey, despite the fact that pneumococcus is the most important organism causing childhood bacterial diseases such as pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis, acute otitis media, and an important cause of mortality and economic burden. Therefore, projections of some published local surveillance data ...
Pelton, Stephen - - 2010
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of invasive illness (meningitis and bacteremia) and the most common cause of noncomplicated pneumonia, sinusitis and otitis media in children worldwide. Even with the availability of effective antibiotics, mortality due to pneumococcal diseases remains high, emphasizing the need for prevention. The 7 valent conjugated ...
Camcioglu, Yildiz - - 2010
New vaccines against Streptococcus pneumoniae, which is the leading cause of invasive diseases, are important advances in improving childhood health. Following the introduction of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine to the national vaccine schedule in more than 30 countries, evaluation of immunogenicity of the vaccines has been an important procedure to ...
Nuttall, J.G. - - 2010
Subsoil physicochemical constraints such as primary salinity and high boron (B) can significantly reduce grain yields across wide areas of Australia. Financially viable amelioration options are limited for cropping systems on these soils, which has raised interest in 'genetic solutions'. Increasing the tolerance of crops to high salinity and boron ...
Hall, D.J.M. - - 2010
Sandplain soils on the south coast of Western Australia have multiple limitations to crop production that include water repellence, low water and nutrient retention, subsoil acidity, and high soil strength. Crops on sandplain soils achieve, on average, almost 85% of their rainfall-limited yield potential; however, where there are multiple limitations ...
Kew, G.A. - - 2010
Crop yield in the sandy soils of the Western Australian wheatbelt is influenced strongly by the plant-available water (PAW) and strength of subsoils. The fabric of hard subsoils of fluvial and aeolian origin has been compared with that of in situ saprolite materials that also occur as subsoils in Western ...
MacEwan, R.J. - - 2010
Available soil information and unpublished data from soil survey indicate that high clay contents and high bulk density are the major subsoil constraints to crop growth in the high rainfall zone (HRZ) of south-eastern Australia. Seven high rainfall agroecological zones are proposed as sub-divisions of the region to focus future ...
McBeath, T.M. - - 2010
In southern Australia the ability of field crops to extract soil moisture and nutrients from depth depends on the physical and chemical properties of the subsoil. In texture-contrast soils accumulation of water and nutrients in the E or A2 horizon, immediately above a clay B horizon of much lower hydraulic ...
Nuttall, J.G. - - 2010
Subsoil physicochemical constraints can limit crop production on alkaline soils of south-eastern Australia. Fifteen farmer paddocks sown to a range of crops including canola, lentil, wheat, and barley in the Wimmera and Mallee of Victoria and the mid-north and Eyre Peninsula of South Australia were monitored from 2003 to 2006 ...
Rengasamy, Pichu - - 2010
Pot experiments were conducted using a sandy loam soil and various electrolyte solutions such as NaCl, CaCl2, [Na.sub.2]S[O.sub.4], and Hoagland nutrient solution containing all macro- and micro-nutrient elements in appropriate proportions, inducing different electrical conductivity (EC) levels of the soil solution during the growth of Krichauff wheat while the water ...
Dang, Y.P. - - 2010
Productivity of grain crops grown under dryland conditions in north-eastern Australia depends on efficient use of rainfall and available soil moisture accumulated in the period preceding sowing. However, adverse subsoil conditions including high salinity, sodicity, nutrient imbalances, acidity, alkalinity, and high concentrations of chloride (Cl) and sodium (Na) in many ...
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