Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 551
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Pizur-Barnekow, Kris - - 2011
Gillespie, Rencia - - 2011
Snyders, Olivia - - 2011
Purpose. The aim of this review was to evaluate the evidence on the effectiveness of oral chlorhexidine in the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in critically ill adult mechanically ventilated patients in intensive care units (ICUs).
Perrie, Helen - - 2011
Background. Recent research has highlighted the importance of oral care in the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Although oral care is a fundamental aspect of nursing care, it is often given lower priority than other nursing interventions in intensive care units (ICUs).
Oh, S.-H. - - 2011
Global pork markets are becoming more competitive, riding the wind of the bilateral free trade agreement. China is the world's largest pork producer with nearly 50% of the world's total production. China's fast growing economy has provided its people with higher purchasing power, resulting in a rapid expansion of the ...
Panda, A.K. - - 2011
The effects of dietary lysine (Lys) at a fixed ratio to crude protein (CP) and essential amino acids (EAA) on early growth response of broilers were studied. Four diets were formulated to contain similar metabolizable energy (ME, 2,950 kcal/kg) but contained graded levels of incremental Lys (1.1, 1.2, 1.3 and ...
Lee, Sang-Min - - 2011
A factorial (4 x 2 x 2) experimental design was employed to determine apparent digestibilities of dry matter (DM), protein, lipid, energy and nitrogen-free extract (NFE) of the test diets containing either [alpha]-potato starch (A-PS), [beta]-potato starch (B-PS), [beta]-corn starch (B-CS) or dextrin (DEX) as dietary carbohydrate energy for juvenile ...
Thacker, P.A. - - 2011
This trial was conducted to determine the effects of including canola protein concentrate in diets fed to broiler chickens on nutrient digestibility and broiler performance (0-21 days). A total of 180, day-old, male broiler chicks weighing an average of 52.8[+ or -]0.6 g were assigned to one of six dietary ...
Yan, L. - - 2011
32 sows (Landrace x Yorkshire) and their litters were used to evaluate the effects of varying creep feed duration on pre-weaning, post-weaning performance of piglets and sows. Sows were randomly assigned with 1, 2 or 3+ parities into 1 of 4 treatments. Creep feeding was initiated at day 5, 10 ...
Suresh, B.N. - - 2011
Sugarcane press residue (SPR), a byproduct from the sugar industry was evaluated for it's nutrient and energetic quality in broilers and layers. The composition of SPR included (% DM): CP-11.76 (methionine-2.21, cystine-1.05, lysine-4.85, threonine-5.48% of CP), EE-7.87 (palmitic acid-30.3, stearic acid-4.1, oleic aicd-17.2, linoleic acid-38.0, linolenic acid-5.4% of EE), CF-10.08, ...
Soares, F.S. - - 2011
Live weight, body length, hip and shoulder heights, heart girth, and metatarsal length were measured on 100 one to two years old Bali (Bos javanicus) bulls. Multiple regression of these measurements on live weight gave a prediction equation involving heart girth and body length (prediction R = 0.845). These measurements ...
Lee, Shin - - 2011
This study was carried out to estimate effects of synbiotics containing anaerobic microorganisms and prebiotics on in vitro fermentation characteristics and in situ disappearance rate of fermented total mixed ration (F-TMR). For the in vitro trial, ninety vinyl bags were prepared to analyze temperature, pH, ammonia concentration, microbial growth rate ...
Mapekula, M. - - 2011
Accurate assessment of the nutritional status of Nguni cattle is becoming increasingly important in determining their mechanism for adaptation to challenging environments. Changes in body weights and concentrations of total protein (TP), albumin, globulin, glucose, cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), phosphorus (SIP), calcium and magnesium were determined in Nguni and ...
Kim, Y.I. - - 2011
This study was conducted to evaluate the yield, nutrient characteristics, ruminal solubility, degradability and disappearance of spent mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) substrates for ruminants. The annual yield of spent Agaricus bisporus substrates was measured to be about 210,000 tons (M/T) in South Korea. The surface soil-removed spent substrates had nutritional characteristics ...
Wu, R.B. - - 2011
Real time PCR was used in this study to determine the effect of triticale dried distillers grains with solubles (TDDGS) as a replacement for grain or barley silage in finishing diets on the presence of six classical ruminal bacterial species (Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens, Selenomonas ruminantium, Streptococcus bovis, Megasphaera elsdenii, Prevotella ruminicola ...
Hindiyeh, M.Y. - - 2011
Bakery waste (BW) is much cheaper than barley (20 to 40% the price of barley). Bakery waste and barley grain have similar chemical composition; they contain 99 and 97% organic matter (OM), 1.1 and 1.8% fat, 18 and 15% neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and 14.0 and 14.5% crude protein (CP), ...
Kim, J.Y. - - 2011
This study was carried out to examine the influence of minimum essential medium (MEM) vitamins supplementation to in vitro maturation medium and in vitro culture medium on the development of porcine embryos. Porcine embryo development was investigated following cultivation in both in vitro maturation and culture medium with the supplementation ...
Monga, Rachna - - 2011
Silencing of a specific gene using RNAi (RNA interference) is a valuable tool for functional analysis of a target gene. However, information on RNAi for analysis of gene function in farm animals is relatively nil. In the present study, we have validated the interfering effects of siRNA (small interfering RNA) ...
Lee, Ji-Hong - - 2011
The purpose of this study was to detect SNPs that were responsible for a carcass trait in Hanwoo populations. A nonparametric model applying a restricted partition method (RPM) was used, which exploited a partitioning algorithm considering statistical criteria for multiple comparison testing. Phenotypic and genotypic data were obtained from the ...
Awady, H.G. - - 2011
A total of 4,752 monthly lactation records of Friesian cows during the period from 2000 to 2005 were used to estimate genetic parameters and to determine the effect of udder health on milk production traits. Three milk production traits were studied: 305-day milk yield (305-dMY), 305-day fat yield (305-dFY) and ...
Lee, Yoonseok - - 2011
It is important to identify genetic interactions related to human diseases or animal traits. Many linear statistical models have been reported but they did not consider genetic interactions. Genotype matrix mapping (GMM) has been developed to identify genetic interactions. This study uses the GMM method to detect superior SNP combinations ...
Lee, Jeongsoo - - 2011
To advance the effectiveness of the current Hanwoo improvement system, we developed a general simulation that compared a series of breeding schemes under realistic user circumstances. We call this system the Integrated General Model (IGM) and it allows users to control the breeding schemes and selection methods by manipulating the ...
Louw, V.J. - - 2011
Introduction. Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) is a chronic myeloproliferative disorder characterised by a chromosomal translocation between the long arms of chromosomes 9 and 12 resulting in the formation of the BCR-ABL fusion gene. The management of CML has undergone major changes over the past decade. Novel treatment approaches have had ...
Mendes, J.F. - - 2011
Intentional and unintentional injuries were reported to be the second leading cause of Disability Adjusted Life Years in South Africa in 2000. We present household experiences of such injuries in 5 impoverished housing settlements in Johannesburg, Gauteng Province. Data for this study were extracted from the database of the Health, ...
du Plessis, - - 2011
Background. South Africa's HIV mortality is primarily due to pulmonary disease. No evidence exists regarding a correlation between specific chest radiographic patterns and CD4 levels of immunity in HIV-infected children.
Donald, Kirsten - - 2011
Background. Aspirin should not be used in children except for specific therapeutic reasons. We report on a severely ill infant who had ingested aspirin contained in a traditional medicine and review 21 other patients with pre-admission non-therapeutic salicylate exposure.
Myers, J. - - 2011
Projections show that the effects of climate change in Africa will not be uniform over the region. The region is extremely vulnerable to climate change because of poverty, a high pre-existing disease burden, fragmented health services and water and food insecurity. Despite the consensus that locally relevant information is necessary ...
Myers, J. - - 2011
Anthropogenic climate change and anticipated adverse effects on human health as outlined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) are taken as givens. A conceptual model for thinking about the spectrum of climate-related health risks ranging from distal and infrastructural to proximal and behavioural and their relation to the ...
Dhai, Ames - - 2011
Complaints of sexual impropriety against health care practitioners are escalating. Professionalism in the practitioner-patient relationship and the role-based trust in health care do not allow crossing of sexual boundaries. Communication with patients is key to prevent erroneous allegations of sexual misconduct. The intimate examination is difficult to define. A chaperone ...
Johnstone-Robertson, Simon - - 2011
Background. Prisons are recognised internationally as institutions with very high tuberculosis (TB) burdens where transmission is predominantly determined by contact between infectious and susceptible prisoners. A recent South African court case described the conditions under which prisoners awaiting trial were kept. With the use of these data, a mathematical model ...
Baviskar, Sandhya - - 2011
Modern microscopy techniques generate an enormous amount of data in the form of images. Manual analysis of these images produces biased results that are often not reproducible. To extract the numerical data from the images, a free and user-friendly software called ImageJ is available at the NIH website. In this ...
Fonseca, Maria - - 2011
Sunlight is required for vital biological processes. However, solar ultraviolet radiation can have a detrimental impact on living organisms, by acting as a natural mutagenic agent. With this activity, intended for middle school and high school, we propose a simple hands-on experiment to investigate the bactericidal effect of sunlight. The ...
Hopkins, Jessica - - 2011
Effective investigations incorporate all four features of constructivist teaching. This high school or college-level field investigation guides teachers (and students) through the stages of inquiry. The focal concept is ecosystem function, specifically leaf decay rates in aquatic environments. Teachers elicit their students' prior knowledge and use it to generate discussion ...
Bohland, Cindy - - 2011
Few laboratory exercises are designed to teach biology students about barriers that may constrain the movement of organisms. We describe a unique inquiry-based exercise involving Lego mazes (the barrier) and the plasmodial slime mold, Physarum polycephalum (the organism). During guided inquiry, students construct mazes using Lego brand building blocks and ...
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