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Results 601 - 650 of 907
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Denny, Lynette - - 2008
Fedak, George - - 2008
Golczyk, Hieronim - - 2008
The genus Oenothera shows an intriguing extent of permanent translocation heterozygosity. Reciprocal translocations of chromosome aims in species or populations result in various kinds of chromosome multivalents in diakinesis. Early meiotic events conditioning such chromosome behaviour are poorly understood. We found a surprising uniformity of the leptotene-diplotene period, regardless of ...
Sardos, J. - - 2008
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a clonally propagated crop that was introduced into the South Pacific archipelago of Vanuatu in the 1850s. Based on a survey conducted in 10 different villages throughout the archipelago, we present here a study of its diversity. Farmers' knowledge about cultivation cycle and sexual reproduction ...
Luo, P.G. - - 2008
Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiormis Westend f. sp. tritici, is one of the most important foliar diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) worldwide. Stripe rust resistance genes Yr27, Yr31, YrSp, YrV23, and YrCN19 on chromosome 2BS confer resistance to some or all Chinese P. striiormis f. sp. tritici races ...
Dick, Katherine - - 2008
Distal hereditary motor neuronopathy type seven (dHMN-VII) is an autosomal dominant condition characterized by distal muscular atrophy associated with unilateral or bilateral vocal cord paralysis. We previously mapped the dHMNVII locus to chromosome 2814 using a genome-wide linkage scan in a single large pedigree. Here we have performed more detailed ...
Hayashi, Eiji - - 2008
Temperature and light are primary environmental cues affecting seed germination. To elucidate the genetic architecture underlying lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seed germination under different environmental conditions, an Fx recombinant inbred line population consisting of 131 families was phenotyped for final germination and germination rate. Seeds were imbibed in water at ...
George, Julie - - 2008
Computational analysis has been used to align the genetic map of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) with the draft genome sequence of the model legume species Medicago truncatula Gaertn. In silico comparison based on white clover expressed sequence tags that contain simple sequence repeat loci revealed substantial macrosynteny between the ...
Kim, N.-S. - - 2008
Wild species in the Triticeae tribe are very valuable resources for agronomic improvement in cereal crop species. Intergeneric hybrids were produced between several barley cultivars and perennial species in the genera Elymus, Thinopyrum, and Pseudoroegneria. Caryopsis formation and subsequent plantlet regeneration from embryo culture were variable depending on the hybrid ...
Li, Rong - - 2008
Expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries are a powerful tool for gene discovery in plants with genomes that are not fully sequenced. Adonis aestivalis (Ranunculaceae) is unusual among higher plants in that it accumulates large amounts of the valuable red ketocarotenoid astaxanthin in the flower petals, in addition to other carotenoids, ...
Gong, L. - - 2008
The first SSR-based genetic linkage map of Cucurbita moschata was created by integrating the maps of two FZ populations with one common parent developed from the crosses Waltham Butternut (WB) x Nigerian Local (NL) and ZHOU (a hull-less type) x WB. The integrated C. moschata map comprises 205 SSR markers ...
Lange, Cornelia - - 2008
A sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) fosmid library from the doubled haploid accession KWS2320 encompassing 115 200 independent clones was constructed and characterized. The average insert size of the fosmid library was determined by pulsed field gel electrophoresis to be 39 kbp on average, thus representing 5.9-fold coverage of the sugar ...
Ceccarelli, Marilena - - 2008
DNA sequences belonging to two families of tandem repeats, PpeRsal (362-364 by in length, 62% A+T residues) and PpeRsa2 (355-359 by in length, 59% A+T residues), have been isolated from the Potamogeton pectinatus L. genome. The two sequence families do not share significant nucleotide sequence similarity, even if an evolutionary ...
Lesbarreres, David - - 2008
Calling behaviour and the characteristics of the male call are important for both female mate choice and male mating success in anurans. As with most other ranid frogs, males of the agile frog (Rana dalmatina Fitzinger in Bonaparte, 1839) emit advertisement calls during the mating period. However, since males occupy ...
Cote, D. - - 2008
Young fish often avoid deep water to reduce predation risk from larger fish. Less clear are explanations for the avoidance of shallows by large piscivorous fish; however, one hypothesis suggests that this distribution reduces contact with depth-limited semi-aquatic mammal and bird piscivores. We determined prey size selection of the river ...
Brodeur, Vincent - - 2008
Extensive logging of the boreal forest rejuvenates landscapes once dominated by old-growth stands. As black bear (Ursus americanus Pallas, 1780) fitness and behavior are known to be primarily related to the abundance of shadeintolerant soft mast species in northern forests, we hypothesized that logging will influence habitat and space use ...
Endo, C. - - 2008
Food acquisition in animals that construct burrows for foraging is influenced by burrow structure associated with food distribution and searching patterns. The burrowing patterns of the oriental mole cricket (Gryllotalpa orientalis Brumeister, 1838) (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) were investigated based on analyses of the relation between burrow morphology and plant distribution. To ...
Tattersall, Glenn - - 2008
To augment [O.sub.2] supply through the jelly mass and egg capsule, embryonic yellow-spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum (Shaw, 1802)) take advantage of a unicellular alga, Oophila ambystomatis. Convective currents from surface cilia, however, may also enhance [O.sub.2] transport, whereas muscular contractions could either enhance delivery or contribute to [O.sub.2] consumption. Embryonic ...
Storm, Jonathan - - 2008
Few studies have addressed whether terrestrial insects assess predation risk via chemical cues. We exposed predator-naive fall field crickets (Gryllus pennsylvanicus Burmeister, 1838) to filter paper containing the chemical cues of three wolf spiders (Hogna helluo (Walckenaer, 1837), Rabidosa rabida (Walckenaer, 1837), Rabidosa punctulata (Hentz, 1844)), the house cricket (Acheta ...
Fernandez-Montraveta, C. - - 2008
Habitat quality affects many components of animal fitness and animals are expected to be distributed in the space accordingly. Mismatch between habitat preferences and fitness may relate to scale-dependent effects and trade-offs between costs and benefits of moving to high-quality habitats. We investigated the effects of habitat quality and habitat ...
Reinhardt, U.G. - - 2008
New lamprey-friendly fishways feature inclined ramps that facilitate passage of Pacific lampreys (Lampetra tridentata (Richardson, 1836)) over Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River, USA. We observed the lampreys moving against water at two flow volumes and on two ramps of 45 [degrees] and 18 [degrees] angles relative to horizontal. We ...
Christie, Katie - - 2008
The predictable annual spawning of anadromous salmon (genus Oncorhynchus Suckley, 1861) provides an important marine resource subsidy to terrestrial species throughout the North Pacific. Using isotopic ratios of nitrogen ([[delta].sup.15]N) and carbon ([[delta].sup.13]C), we examine pathways of salmon nutrient uptake by a ground-foraging passerine, the winter wren (Troglodytes troglodytes (L., ...
Chase, Ronald - - 2008
The sperm storage organ of terrestrial gastropod molluscs is implicated in sexual selection because it has a complex structure and it functions in a context of intense sperm competition. Received sperm are stored in spermathecal tubules. In our sample using the brown garden snail (Cornu aspersum (Muller, 1774)) (n = ...
Marshall, W.S. - - 2008
Killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus (L., 1766)) collected in the wild and kept in full-strength seawater were naturally parasitized by the ectoparasite Argulus funduli Kroyer, 1863, a copepod fish louse that creates inflamed skin lesions on the opercular epithelium and host gills. We assessed the damage done by lesions by counting the ...
Bulte, G. - - 2008
Sexual dimorphism in body size and in trophic morphology are common in animals and are often concordant with patterns of habitat use and diet. Proximate factors leading to intersexual differences in habitat use, however, are challenging to unravel because these differences may stem from sexual dimorphism or may be caused ...
Weir, J.S. - - 2008
Mammalian young are especially vulnerable to harm because of their small size, poorly developed survival skills, and strong dependence on maternal care. Tactics for rearing young, including avoiding harm, vary largely by environment type. Off Kaikoura, New Zealand, mother--calf pairs of dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus (Gray, 1828)) are often found ...
Midaoui, Adil - - 2008
Beneficial effects of an antioxidant (N-acetyl-i,-cysteine, NAC) and an angiotensin 1-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor (ramipril) were assessed in a rat model of insulin resistance induced by 10% glucose feeding for 20 weeks. Treatments with NAC (2 g/kg per day) and ramipril (1 mg/kg per day) were initiated at 16 weeks ...
Rocha, Adriana - - 2008
Citalopram (CITA) is available as a racemic mixture or as (+)-(S)-CITA. In humans, CITA is metabolized to demethylcitalopram (DCITA) by CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A and to didemethylcitalopram by CYP2D6. There are no data regarding the enzymes involved in CITA and DCITA metabolism in rats. The present study investigated the influence ...
Mokra, Daniela - - 2008
Glucocorticoids may improve lung function in newborns with meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS), but information on the acute side effects of glucocorticoids in infants is limited. In this study using a rabbit model of MAS, we addressed the hypothesis that systemic administration of dexamethasone causes acute cardiovascular changes. Adult rabbits were ...
Wang, Juejin - - 2008
Diet can be an important factor that influences risks for cardiovascular disease. Genistein (4',5,7-trihydroxyisoflavone), rich in soy, is one candidate that may benefit the cardiovascular system. Here, we explored the effect of genistein in atherosclerosis (AS) development in an in vivo mouse model. Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) knockout mice were ...
Ghayur, Muhammad - - 2008
Paeonia emodi (peony) is a well known plant used medicinally to treat hypertension, palpitations, and asthma. Despite its popularity, there are few reports in the scientific literature examining its use in such conditions. We prepared a 70% ethanolic extract of peony root (Pe.Cr) and applied it to segments of guinea ...
Guo, Shi-Yin - - 2008
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of capsaicin on hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R)-induced apoptosis in primary rat hippocampal neurons. Three hours of hypoxia (1% 02) and subsequent reoxygenation for 24 h significantly increased the apoptotic death of hippocampal neurons, as evidenced by increases in both TUNEL-positive cell number ...
Farhat, Nada - - 2008
Age-associated telomere shortening leads to replicative senescence of human endothelial cells (EC. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) accelerate ageing, while there is a concomitant rise in oxidative stress known to promote stress-induced senescence (SIS) in vitro. Of all risk factors for CVD, smoking is most associated with the development ...
Bohm, Felix - - 2008
Endothelin (ET)-1 receptor blockade improves endothelial function in the forearm of patients with atherosclerosis. The aim was to investigate whether intracoronary ET receptor blockade improves coronary endothelial function and increases blood flow in patients with coronary artery disease. Ten patients received a 60-minute infusion of either the selective [ET.sub.A] receptor ...
Gao, Yu-Jing - - 2008
The effect of an increased blood flow on vascular remodeling was studied in the mesenteric arteries of 11-12 week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and age-matched normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). Increased blood flow was induced by selective ligation of mesenteric arteries. Nearby arteries with normal blood flow were used as controls. ...
Pozzatti, Patricia - - 2008
In the present study, the antifungal activity of selected essential oils obtained from plants used as spices was evaluated against both fluconazole-resistant and fluconazole-susceptible Candida spp. The Candida species studied were Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei. For comparison purposes, they were arranged in groups ...
Koleva, Dafinka - - 2008
The enzymatic defence system in the 2 yeasts Kluyveromyces marxianus and Rhodotorula glutinis, differing in their mode of oxygen uptake and energy generation, was characterized and compared with the well x studied facultatively fermentative Crabtree-positive Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain. Twofold higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities were detected in K. ...
Locas, Annie - - 2008
Because chlorine disinfection is not permitted in the province of Quebec, wastewater disinfection by ultraviolet (UV) light has been used for years in wastewater treatment plants. Thermotolerant coliforms discharge criteria are set for each plant and are adjusted by a factor of 1 log to compensate for photoreactivation in UV-disinfected ...
Baldotto, Lilian Estrela - - 2008
Plant surfaces are a favourable niche for bacterial establishment, and hypothetically, plant species differ in their capacity to harbour epiphytic bacterial communities. This study was conducted to evaluate and describe the structural relationship of a bacterial community at the phyllosphere level with different plant species in a tropical ecosystem. Leaf ...
Zinniel, Denise - - 2008
Microbacterium testaceum is a predominant endophytic bacterial species isolated from corn and sorghum in the midwestern United States. The development of genetic transfer systems for M. testaceum may enable its use for biocontrol and other applications. The type strain (IFO 12675) and field isolates (SE017, SE034, and CE648) were grown ...
Roy, Denis - - 2008
HPr is a protein of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase transport system (PTS). In gram-positive bacteria, HPr can be phosphorylated on Ser-46 by the kinase/phosphorylase HprK/P and on His-15 by phospho-enzyme I (EI~P) of the PTS. In vitro studies with purified Hers from Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, and Streptococcus salivarius have indicated ...
Wolfaardt, G.M. - - 2008
Microbiological analyses were conducted on core samples collected along a vertical profile (0-66 m below surface) from the tailings management facility (TMF) at the Rabbit Lake uranium mine in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. Bacterial numbers in the core materials were similar to surrounding soils and surface waters, regardless of the seemingly ...
Trigo, Gabriela - - 2008
Streptococcus agalactiae is a common pathogen that causes bovine mastitis. The aims of this study were to evaluate the antibody response against S. agalactiae extracellular proteins in the whey and serum of naturally infected bovines and to identify possible immunodominant extracellular antigens. [IgG.sub.1] antibodies against S. agalactiae extracellular proteins were ...
Pollard, Angela - - 2008
The opportunistic pathogen Haemophilus parainfluenzae is a gram-negative bacterium found in the oropharynx of humans. Haemophilus parainfluenzae is a member of the Pasteurellaceae family in which it is most closely related to Haemophilus sengis and Actinobacillus. Characterization of surface displayed lipooligosaccharide has identified components that are crucial in adherence. We ...
Sebakova, Helena - - 2008
The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in hot water systems of 4 selected hospital settings. The hospitals provided the following types of disinfection for their hot water systems: hydrogen peroxide and silver, thermal disinfection, chlorine dioxide, and no treatment (control). In each ...
Kauserud, Havard - - 2008
Bryophytes are a dominant and functionally important component of the forest floor vegetation in boreal forests, yet little is known about the fungal diversity associated with these abundant plants. Using molecular identification, we document an ecologically and phylogenetically diverse array of fungi associated with the living parts of three widespread ...
Escobar-Guzman, Rocio - - 2008
Agave tequilana Weber var. azul is the raw material used in the production of tequila. This species has a life cycle of approximately 6-8 years; however, owing to the practice of removing the inflorescence to conserve accumulated sugar reserves, the main form of reproduction is asexual. Little attention has, therefore, ...
Horvath, Aniko - - 2008
Prunus cerasifera (Ehrh.) (cherry or Myrobalan plum) is a diverse species with several recognized subspecies and natural forms. It is used as rootstock or as an ornamental tree, and is considered to be one progenitor of the garden plum (Prunus domestica L.). This study considers the genetic relationships among different ...
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